Time Schedule Based on Ocean Water
As noted, geologists concluded that the chemical composition
of sea water and the ocean floor sediments is principally a
product of the weathering of continental rocks. If this
weathering of rocks was a very short time phenomenon, then one
would expect to find far different proportions of elements in sea
water than are found within the average rocks of the continents.
This seems logical since some rocks erode more easily than
others, and therefore easily erodable chemicals should be most
abundant in sea water. Differences in relative chemical
proportions would also be due to other variables, such as the fact
that some elements are not as readily transportable by rivers and
ocean currents as others, and some are less soluble in water than
Nevertheless, if the duration of erosion was long enough,
elements in the sea water and on the sea floor should quite
accurately coincide with the chemical content of continental
masses. Even the hardest of rocks would be eroded, and even the
least transportable of minerals would ultimately be carried by the
rivers to the sea.
Thus when scientists talk about millions of years, on a
world-wide basis, the proportion of one element in the sea water
and on the sea floor to all other elements in the same environment
should be approximately the same ratio as that element to all
other elements in the continental masses, for in a very general
way all the mass must shomhow be conserved. For example, if the
percentage of silicon in the continental masses is 27.5%, then if
the oceans were old enough, the total of all the silicon in the
ocean water and on the ocean floor should be 27.5% approximatey.
Furthermore, if the total quantities of various elements in
the seas and sea floor and the approximate rate of world-wide
erosion could be known, then the length of time required to bring
present elements into the ocean could be estimated. In turn, an
approximate age for the earth might be deduced.
Fortunately, scientists have determined rather accurately the
chemical composition of both the sea water and the land masses.
Sverdrup et al prepared a table (Table I)(5) showing the amounts
of various chemicals that should have entered the oceans during a
period of 260 millions of years. This is the estimated length of
time which would be required to provide the present quantity of
salt in the ocean water, assuming uniform weathering throughout
this period of time.
He mentions an estimate by Goldschmidt in 1933 that
accumulation of the present concentration of salt (NaCl) in
solution would have required weathering of 600 grams of rock for
each kilogram of water in the ocean. Thus according to Table I,
17,000 mg. (17 gr.) of sodium were released and 165,000 mg. (165
gr.) of silicon were likewise released for accumulation in the
oceans for each 600 grams of rock weathered.
With this estimate of potential elements available, one
wonders what is the actual quantity of elements in sea water. An
estimate for each element is given in the second column of Table
For example, in a kilogram of sea water there is on the
average about .5 mg. of aluminum in solution. This is only .001%
of the estimated 53,000 mg. expected if weathering had continued
for as long as 260 million years, the estimated time required to
provide the observed amount of salt.
In fact, after close examination of all the elements listed in
Table I, one concludes there is a total lack of relationship
between the chemicals in the oceans and the continents. For
example, chlorine is 67 times too prevalent in sea water, nickel
is 500,000 times too scarce. Silicon, which is one of the most
common constituents of rocks, should be 50,000 times more
plentiful in ocean water if it were in proportion to that in
Perhaps one reason for this total disproportion between the
expected volumes of elements in the sea water and their actual
occurrence is that sea water will hold in solution only a tiny bit
of each element. In other words, most of the silicon goes out of
solution to the sea bottom either by precipitation or by the
action of organisms. That sea water is not saturated with silicon
is supported by F.A.J. Armstrong:
Sea water is undersaturated with respect to silica,
although since reported values for its solubility are
somewhat inconsistent, it is not possible to say how
And Kuenen has written:
Under normal conditions sea water is not supersaturated
with any product, and circulation is automatically set up
in areas of excess evaporation, preventing the formation
of excessive concentrations.(7)
Apparently, then, many elements are far too insufficient in
ocean water as compared with the quantities that should be present
if the oceans were millions of years old. And further, the sea
water in general is not saturated with chemical elements.
Therefore the oceans could be very young, because if the
oceans had existed long enough, those elements which are
especially soluble would have reached a saturated condition in
many parts of the world.
Using the unsaturated condition of the oceans, researchers
should be able to measure the age of oceans since an estimate can
be made of the average annual quantity of chemicals flowing into
the ocean from the rivers. Dividing the total quantity of an
element existing in an unsaturated condition in ocean solution by
the quantity of the same element flowing into the ocean should
result in some concept of the ocean's age.
This information is found in Table II.(8) Evidently 2.0 x 10^7
(20 million) years of continental weathering would have been
required to supply all the lithium (Li) presently found in ocean
solution. Presumably, sodium (Na) would have been accumulating
for some 2.6 x 10^8 (260 million) years.
Nevertheless, a very strange fact becomes evident upon careful
study of Table II. Some of the elements are in very short supply
in the oceans. Therefore only 100 years of continental weathering
would have been required for accumulation of the tiny quantity of
aluminum in ocean solution. In fact, nineteen of the elements in
sea water are found in such small amounts that the concentrations
could have accumulated in 1,000 years of continental weathering.
Two conclusions are possible from this startling information:
l. The oceans must be very young because small quantities of
many of the elements are in solution.
2. The oceans must be very young because of the wide
discrepancy of residency periods of various chemicals.
Differential erosion over a relatively short period of time
together with other variables, such as water transportability and
solubility of elements, could account for this wide spread in
One other fact should be noted in this regard. Chlorine,
sulphur, bromine and boron exist in much larger amounts (See Table
I) than those which would be supplied while the elements, such as
sodium, with which they are normally associated, were being
weathered from rocks into the ocean waters. Therefore a third
conclusion is possible:
3. That salt (NaCl) and perhaps a number of other chemicals
are in the oceans completely apart from normal rock weathering.
Index - Evolution or Creation1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 78 | 79 | 80 | 81 | 82 | 83 | 84 | 85 | 86 | 87 | 88 | 89 | 90 | 91 | 92 | 93 | 94 | 95 | 96 | 97 | 98 | 99 | 100 | 101 | 102 | 103 | 104 | 105 | 106 | 107 | 108 | 109 | 110 | 111 | 112 | 113 | 114 | 115 | 116 | 117 | 118 | 119 | 120 | 121 | 122 | 123 | 124 | 125 | 126 | 127 | 128 | 129 | 130 | 131 | 132 | 133 | 135 | 136 | 137 | 138 | 139 | 140 | 141 | 142 | 143 | 144 | 145 | 146 | 147 | 148 | 149 | 150 | 151 | 152 | 153 | 154 | 155 | 156 | 157 | 158 | 159 | 160 | 161 | 162 | 163 | 164 | 165 | 166 | 168 | 169 | 170 | 171 | 172 | 173 | 174 | 175 | 176 | 177 | 178 | 179 | 180 | 181 | 182 | 183 | 184 | 185 | 186 | 187 | 188 | 189 | 190 | 191 | 192 | 193 | 194 | 195 | 196 | 197 | 198 | 199 | 200 | 201 | 202 | 203 | 204 | 205 | 206 | 207 | 208 | 209 | 210 | 211 | 212 | 213 | 214 | 215 | 216 | 217 | 218 | 219 | 220 | 221 | 222 | 223 | 224 | 225 | 226 | 227 | 228 | 229 | 230 | 231