By Henry M. Morris, Ph.D.

Creationism can be studied and taught in any of three basic forms,

as follows:

(1) Scientific creationism(non-relegious Biblical revelation,

utilizing only scientific data to support and expound the

creation model).

(2) Biblical Creationism (no reliance on scientific data, using

only the Bible to expound and defend the creation model).

(3) Scientific Biblical creationism (full reliance on Biblical

revelation but also using scientific data to support and

develop the creation model).

These are not contradictory systems, of course, but

supplementary, each appropriate for certain applications. For

example, creationists should not advocate that Biblical

creationism be taught in public schools, both because of judicial

restrictions against religion in such schools and also (more

importantly) because teachers who do not believe the Bible should

not be asked to teach the Bible. It is both legal and desirable,

however, that scientific creationism be taught in public schools

as a valid alternative to evolutionism.

In a Sunday School class, on the other hand, dedicated to

teaching the Scriptures and all the counsel of God," Biblical

creationism should be strongly expounded and emphasized as the

foundation of all other doctrine. In a Christian school or

college, where the world of God is studied in light of the Word of

God, it is appropriate and very important to demonstrate that

Biblical creationism and scientific creationism are fully compati-

ble, two sides of the same coin, as it were. The creationist

revelation in Scripture is thus supported by all true facts of

nature; the combined study can properly be called scientific

Biblical creationism. All three systems, of course, contrast

sharply and explicitly with the evolution model.

The evolution and creation models, in their simplest forms,

can be outlined as follows:

'See Scientific Creationism, ed. Henry M. Monis (San Diego:

C.L.P. Publishers, 1974), p. 12.

Dr. Henry M. Morris is the Director of the

Institute for Creation

a"'i th

Research n e author of other numerous articles and books.

Evolution Model Creation Model

1. Continuing naturalistic I . Completed supernatural-

origin lstic origin

2. Net present Increase It* 2. Net present decrease in

complexity complexity

3. Earth history dominated 3. Earth history domhiated

by uniformitarian-.m L-,y catastrophism


The evolution model, as outlined above, is in very general

terms. It can be expanded and modified in a number of ways to

correspond to particular types of evolutionism (atheistic

evolution, theistic evolution, Lamarckism, neo-Darwinism,

punctuated equilibrium, etc.).

The same is true of the creation model, with the Biblical

record giving additional specific information which could never be

determined from science alone. The three key items in the

creation model above are then modified as follows:

Biblical Creation Model

1 Creation completed by supernatural processes in six days.

Creation in the bondage of decay because of sin and the


Earth history dominated by the great flood of Noah's day.

Creationists, however, do not propose that the public schools

teach six-day creation, the fall of man, and the Noachian flood.

They do maintain, however, that they should teach the evidence for

a complex completed creation, the universal principle of decay

(in contrast to the evolutionary assumptions of increasing

organization) and the worldwide evidences of recent catastrophism.

All of these are implicit in observable scientific data, and

should certainly be included in public education.

Both the scientific creation model and The Biblical creation

model can be considerably expanded to incorporate many key events

of creation and earth history, in terms of both scientific

observation on the one hand and Biblical doctrine on the other.

These can, in fact, be developed as a series of formal tenetS2 of

scientific creationism and Biblical creationism, respectively, as

listed below:

Tenets of Scientific Creationism

The physical universe of space, lime, matter and energy has

not always existed, but was supernaturally created by a

transcendent personal Creator who alone has existed from eternity.

The phenomenon of biological life did not develop by natural

processes from inanimate systems but was specially and

supernaturally created by the Creator.

3 Each of the major kinds of plants and animals was created

functionally complete from the beginning and did not evolve from

some other kind of organism. Changes in basic kinds since their

first creation are limited to "horizontal" changes (variations)

within the kinds, or "downward" changes (e.g., harmful mutations,


,4. The first human beings did not evolve from an animal

ancestry, but were specially created in fully human form from the

start. Furthermore, the "spiritual" nature of man


'These tenets have recently been adopted by the staff of the

Institute for Creation Research and incorporated permanently in

its By-Laws.


(self-image, moral consciousness, abstract reasoning, language,

will, religious nature, etc.) is itself a supernaturally created

entity distinct from mere biological life.




primarily a record of catastrophic intensifies of natural

processes, operating largely within uniform natural laws, rather

than one of uniformitahan process rates. There is therefore no a

prioli reason for not considering the many scientific evidences

for a relatively recent creation of the earth and the universe, in

addition to the scientific evidences that most of the earth's

fossiliferous sediments were formed in an even more

recent global hydraulic cataclysm.

i Processes today operate primarily within fixed natural laws

and relatively uniform

Process rates. Since these were themselves originally created and

are daily maintained by their Creator, however, there is always

the possibility of miraculous intervention in these laws or

processes by their Creator. Evidences for such intervention must

be scrutinized critically, however, because there must be clear

and adequate reason for any such ac-don on the part of the



/7 The universe and life have somehow been impaired since the

completion of creation, so that imperfections in structure, disease,

aging, extinctions and other such phenomena are the result of "negative"

changes in properties and processes occurring in an originally

perfect created order.

,'-i, Since the universe and its primary components were

created perfect for their purposes in the beginning by a competent

and volitional Creator, and since the Creator does remain active

in this now-decaying creation, The does exist ultimate purpose

and meaning in the universe. Teleological considerations,

therefore, are appropriate in scientific studies whenever they are

consistent with the actual data of observation, and it iS

reasonable to assume that the creation presently awaits the

consummation of the Creator's purpose.

Although people are finite and scientific data concerning

origins are always circumstantial and incomplete, the human mind

(if open to the possibility of creation) is able to explore the

manifestation of that CreatOF rationally and scientifically, and

to reach an intelligent decision regarding one's place in the

Creator's plan.

Tenets of Biblical Creationism

The Creator of the universe is a triune God-Father, Son and

Holy Spirit. There is only one eternal and transcendent God, the

source of all being and meaning, and He exists in three Persons,

each of whom participated in the work of creation.

). The Bible, consisting of the thirty-nine canonical books

of the Old Testament and the twent-y-seven canonical books of the

New Testament, is the divinely-inspired revelation of the Creator

to man. Its unique, plenary, verbal inspiration guarantees that

these writings, as originally and miraculously given, are

infallible and completely authoritative on all matters with which

they deal, free from error of any sort, scientific and historical

as well as moral and theological.

All things in the universe were created and made by God in

the six literal days of the creation week described in Genesis 1:

1 -2:3, and confirmed in Exodus 20:8-1 1. The creation record is

factual, historical and perspicuous; thus all theories of origins

OF development which involve evolution in any form are false. All

things which now exist are sustained and ordered by God's

providential care. However, a part of the spiritudi cFedtion,

Satan and his angels, rebelled against God after the creation and

are attemting to thwart His divine purposes in creation.

: The first human beings, Adam and Eve, were specifically

created by God, and all other men and women are their descendants.

In Adam, mankind was instructed to exercise "dominion" over all

other created organisms, and over the earth itself (an implicit


commission for true science, technology, commerce, fine art, and

education) but the temptation by Satan and the entrance of sin

brought God's curse on that dominion and on mankind, culminating

in death and separation from God as the natural and proper


') The Biblical record of primeval earth history in Genesis I

- I I is fully historical and perspicuous, including the creation

and fall of man, the curse on the creation and its subjection to

the bondage of decay, the promised Redeemer, the worldwide

cataclysmic deluge in the days of North, the post-diluvian renewdi

of man's commission to subdue the earth (now augmented by the

institution of human government) and the origin of nations and

languages at the tower of Babel.

6. The alienation of man from his Creator because of sin

can only be remedied by the Creator Himself, who became man in the

person of the Lord Jesus Christ, through miraculous conception and

virgin birth. In Christ were indissolubly united perfect sinless

humanity and full deity, so that His substitutionary death is the

only necessary and sufficient price of man's redemption. That the

redemption was completely efficacious is assured by His bodily

resurrection from the dead and ascension into heaven; the resur-

rection of Christ is thus The focal point of history, assuring the

consummation of God's purposes in creation.

,'. The final restoration of creation's perfection is yet

future, but individuals can immediately be restored to fellowship

with their Creator, on the basis of His redemptive work on their

behalf, receiving forgiveness and eternal life solely through

personal trust in the Lord Jesus Christ, accepting Him not only as

estranged Creator but also as reconciling Redeemer and coming

King. Those who reject Him, however, or who neglect to believe on

Him, thereby continue in their state of rebellion and must

ultimately be consigned to the everlasting fire prepared for the

devil and his angels.

The eventual accomplishment of God's eternal purposes in

creation, with the removal of His curse and the restoration of all

things to divine perfection, will take place at the personal

bodily return to the earth of Jesus Christ to judge and purge sin

and to establish His eternal kingdom.

. Each believer should participate in the "ministry of

reconciliation," by seeking both to bring individuals back to God

in Christ (the "Great Commission") and to "subdue the earth" for

God's glory (the Edenic-Noahic Commission). The three

institutions established by the Creator for the implementation of

His purposes in this world (home, government, church) should be

honored and supported as such.

Even though the tenets of scientific creationism can be

expounded quite independently of the tenets of Biblical

creationism, the two systems are completely compatible. All the

genuine facts of science support Biblically] creationism and all

statements in the Bible are consistent with scientific creationism.

Either system can be taught independently of the other or the two

can be taught concurrently, as The individual situation may