"I Think; Therefore, There Is A Supreme Thinker"
Even though the large majority of modern scientists still embrace an
evolutionary view of origins, there is a significant and growing number
of scientists who have abandoned evolution altogether and have accepted
(1) this phenomenon of recent times has occurred not
only because many scientists recognize the dearth of evidence from
paleontology, biology, and other fields to support evolution, but also
do to the realization that the world around us is incredibly complex and
shows so many signs of design that it cries out for an Intelligent
Man shares with animals the ability to integrate sensory
information and to direct motor responses through a command
center called the brain. In higher vertebrates, the brain has the
ability to learn, and, in the case of humans, to think. the very
fact that man posses the capacity to even think about thinking
sets him further apart from animals. So, too, does his brain's
incredibly complex structure, which makes thinking possible.
The BRAINS COMPLEXITY
The adult brain--weighing only about three pounds and averaging about
1400 cubic centimeters--contains about ten billion (10^10) neurons.
The neuron (nerve cell) is the basic unit of the brain. Each contains
branching fibers, call dendrites, and each neuron is in dendritic
contact with as many as 10,000 other neurons. Amazingly, the total
number of neuron interconnections (also called "bits") is
approximately 1000 trillion (10^15), and if the dendritic connections
were lad end to end, they would circle the earth (if it's round :-))
more than four times.
To put this in another perspective, one could compare the human brain to
the most sophisticated of computers--the super computer. The @Cray-2
spupercomputer has a speed of 10^9 computations per second. More
impressively, the brains speed is perhaps 10^15. furthermore, the Cray-2
has a storage capacity of 10^11 bits, as compared to 10^14 bits in the
brain, making the brain equivalent to 1000 super computers (2).
professor Roger Penrose, evolutionist and author of the 1889 boo, The
Emperors's New Mind, cautions, however, against stating that the human
brain is just a complex computer or that a computer will ever be able to
think (i.e., artificial intelligence): "The very fact that the mind
leads us to truths that are not computable convinces me that a computer
can never duplicate the mind" (3). The brains sophistication has also
prompted prolific science writer (an evolutionist) Isaac Asimov to
acknowledge that "in Man is a three pound brain which, as far as we
know, is the most complex and orderly arrangement of matter in the
In his iconoclastic volume, Evolution A Theory In Crisis, evolutionist
Michael Denton has offered the following descriptive observation and
analogy regarding the brain's 10^15 connections:
Numbers in the order of 10^15 are of course completely beyond
comprehension. Imagine an area about half the size of the USA
(one million square miles) covered in a forest of trees
containing ten thousand trees per square mile. If each tree
contained ten thousand leaves, the total number of leaves in the
FOREST would be 10^15, equivalent to the number of connections
in the brain. (5)
Although Dr. Denton is not a creationist, he argues a good case against
the random chance (mindless) processes of evolution bringing about higher
forms of life and a correspondingly complex brain, noting that the human
brain contains a "forest of fibers [which] is not a chaotic random tangle
but a highly organized network..[with] communication channels following
their own specially ordained pathways through the brain" (6).
Denton also concludes that
"it would take an eternity" for engineers to assemble an
object remotely resembling the brain, using the most sophisticated
engineering techniques. (7)
Not only does the incredible design of the brain point to a Master
designer, but so, too, does the Law of Cause and effect. simply put,
this law states that every phenomenon is an effect of a cause.
therefore, using causal reasoning, the first cause of intelligence must
be of supreme intelligence..
EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF THE BRAIN
How, then, does the evolutionist explain the origin and function of the
brain? Darwin, himself, conceded in Origin of the Species that the
formation of the eye--part of the nervous system over which the brain is
in charge--by natural selection "seems, I freely confess, absurd in the
highest degree." (8).
Yet he claimed that it must have happened anyway.
In addition, evolutionary writer Lewis Thomas candidly admits regarding
the brain's operation: "We know a lot about structure and function of
the cells and fibers of the human brain, be we haven't the ghost of an
idea how this extraordinary organ works to produce awareness." (9)
Many evolutionists either avoid the question altogether--Nobel laureate
and evolutionist John Eccles declared it to be "EXTRAORDINARY that there
has been so little publication on the brain's development during the
most important creative process of biological evolution" (10)--or offer
bizarre theories (11).
But recently, some evolutionists have seriously
endeavored to suggest the possible mechanisms that could have produced
something as complex as the brain, but their theories, frankly, perhaps
only reveal that many evolutionary scientists are more right-brain
(creative) than left-brain (cognitive) inclined. For example, in his
recent book, Evolution of the Human Brain (1989), Eccles wrote that,
"while recognizing that much is unknown or only imperfectly none, I have
been able to unfold the fascinating story of hominoid evolution of the
human brain using CREATIVE IMAGINATION restrained by rational criticism"
(12) (emphasis mine).
At any rate, the most common mechanisms cited are natural selection and
mutations. In Richard Dawkins' lucidly written, The Blind Watch-maker,
he attempts to counter the oft-used creationist argument that, just as a
watch is too complicated and purposeful to have come about by accident,
so, too, are living things--especially humans. Dawkins maintains that
"natural selection, the blind, unconscious, automatic process which
Darwin discovered" (13) is the mechanism that has brought about higher
forms of life, and, by implication, the highest manifestation of life's
complexity: the human brain." This is pure speculation, of course, on
No scientist has ever observed natural selection (also
known as survival of the fittest) bringing about a new trait or animal.
Another evolutionist, Carl Sagan, has tackled the brain's origin with
lyrical (and very creative) writing in The Dragons of Eden. (14) Sagan's
subtitle reveals the non-scientific nature of his study:"Speculations on
the Evolution of Human Intelligence" (emphasis mine). Sagan declares
that mutations--mistakes in the genetic makeup of a molecule--are the
raw materials of evolutionary development. (15).
Genes. however are very stable; they rarely change. Furthermore,
mutations, when they occur, are usually lethal and almost always
harmful. (16) the evolution of just one species into another would
require hundreds (thousands? millions?) of accumulated beneficial
mutations. Clearly, "mistakes." Mindless evolution could never, even in
a trillion years, produce the human brain. In fact, it is so complex
that most of it remains unused, yet another conundrum for evolutionists.
It must be acknowledged that one cannot prove, scientifically, that the
animal or human brain was created by a Supreme Intelligence. The
question of origins--creation or evolution--is almost entirely outside
the experimental domain of science, for whenever the first brain was
formed, there were no human observers.
Cognitively, however, and from
observation, it is reasonable to conclude that the human brain
was created; it certainly requires more faith to believe the brain was
formed by mindless evolution than it does to believe it was created.
It was the Apostle Paul who declared the obvious: "For the invisible
things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen" (Romans
The question of origins is of supreme importance even though ultimately
it is outside the domain of experimental science. As we week our
identity in a vast univere, what we believe about origins will influence
how we think and how we view our destiny.
If we choose to believe that
we are the product of chance, random processes (evolution), where man is
perhaps merely of the highest order, then we will possess a
materialistic and relativistic philosophy.
On the other hand, if we choose to
believe that our brain was created by a Master Intelligence,
then we will have a theological world view, one which should prompt us
to use our minds to understand His purpose for His creation. This was,
after all, the conclusion of no less than Isaac Newton, a creationist,
and, arguably the greatest of all scientists, who declared that we had
been created "to think God's thoughts after Him."
Index - Evolution or Creation1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 78 | 79 | 80 | 81 | 82 | 83 | 84 | 85 | 86 | 87 | 88 | 89 | 90 | 91 | 92 | 93 | 94 | 95 | 96 | 97 | 98 | 99 | 100 | 101 | 102 | 103 | 104 | 105 | 106 | 107 | 108 | 109 | 110 | 111 | 112 | 113 | 114 | 115 | 116 | 117 | 118 | 119 | 120 | 121 | 122 | 123 | 124 | 125 | 126 | 127 | 128 | 129 | 130 | 131 | 132 | 133 | 135 | 136 | 137 | 138 | 139 | 140 | 141 | 142 | 143 | 144 | 145 | 146 | 147 | 148 | 149 | 150 | 151 | 152 | 153 | 154 | 155 | 156 | 157 | 158 | 159 | 160 | 161 | 162 | 163 | 164 | 165 | 166 | 168 | 169 | 170 | 171 | 172 | 173 | 174 | 175 | 176 | 177 | 178 | 179 | 180 | 181 | 182 | 183 | 184 | 185 | 186 | 187 | 188 | 189 | 190 | 191 | 192 | 193 | 194 | 195 | 196 | 197 | 198 | 199 | 200 | 201 | 202 | 203 | 204 | 205 | 206 | 207 | 208 | 209 | 210 | 211 | 212 | 213 | 214 | 215 | 216 | 217 | 218 | 219 | 220 | 221 | 222 | 223 | 224 | 225 | 226 | 227 | 228 | 229 | 230 | 231