Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chapter V
Chapter VI
Chapter VII
Chapter VIII
Chapter IX
Chapter X
Chapter XI
Chapter XII
Chapter XIII
Chapter XIV
Chapter XV
Chapter XVI
Chapter XVII
Chapter XVIII
Chapter XIX
Chapter XX
Chapter XXI
Chapter XXII
Chapter XXIII
Chapter XXIV
Chapter XXV
Chapter XXVI
Chapter XXVII
Chapter XXVIII
Chapter XXIX
Chapter XXX
Chapter XXXI
Chapter XXXII
Chapter XXXIII
Chapter XXXIV
Chapter XXXV
Chapter XXXVI
Chapter XXXVII
Chapter XXXIX
Chapter XL
Chapter XLI
Chapter XLII
Chapter XLIII
Chapter XLIV
Chapter XLV
Chapter XLVI
Chapter XLVII
Chapter XLVIII
Chapter XLIX
Chapter L
Chapter LI
Chapter LII
Chapter LIII
Chapter LIV
Chapter LV
Chapter LVI
Chapter LVII
Chapter LVIII
Chapter LIX
Chapter LX
Chapter LXI
Chapter LXII
Chapter LXIII
Chapter LXIV
Chapter LXV
Chapter LXVI
Chapter LXVII
Chapter LXVIII
Chapter LXIX
Chapter LXX
Chapter LXXI
Chapter LXXII
Chapter LXXIII
Chapter LXXIV
Chapter LXXV
Chapter LXXVI
Chapter LXXVII
Chapter LXXIX
Chapter LXXX
Chapter LXXXI
Chapter LXXXII
Chapter LXXXIV
Chapter LXXXV
Chapter LXXXVI
Chapter LXXXIX

We have now before us one of the choicest parts of the Old Testament, wherein there is so much of Christ and his gospel, as well as of God and his law, that it has been called the summary of both Testaments. The history of Israel; which we were long upon, instructed us in the knowledge of God. The book of Job gave us profitable disputations, concerning God and his providence. But this book brings us into the sanctuary, draws us off from converse with men, with the philosophers or disputers of this world, and directs us into communion with God. It is called, the Psalms, in Hebrew Tehillim, which properly signifies Psalms of praise, because many of them are such; but Psalms is a more general word, meaning all poetical compositions, fitted to be sung. St. Peter styles it, The book of Psalms. It is a collection of Psalms, of all the Psalms that were divinely inspired, composed at several times, on several occasions, and here put together, without any dependence on each other. Thus they were preserved from being scattered and lost, and kept in readiness for the service of the church. One of these is expressly said to be the prayer of Moses. That some of them were penned by Asaph, is intimated, 2Chron 29:30, where they are said to praise the Lord, in the words of David and Asaph, who is there called a seer or prophet. And some of the Psalms seem to have been penned long after, at the time of the captivity in Babylon. But the far greater part were wrote by David, who was raised up for establishing the ordinance of singing Psalms in the church of God, as Moses and Aaron were for settling the ordinance of sacrifice. Theirs indeed is superseded, but this will remain, 'till it be swallowed up in the songs of eternity. There is little in the book of Psalms of the ceremonial law. But the moral law is all along magnified, and made honourable. And Christ the foundation, corner and top - stone of all religion, is here clearly spoken of; both his sufferings, with the glory that should follow, and the, kingdom he would set up in the world.

Chapter I

This psalm was put first as a preface to all the rest, as a powerful persuasive to the serious study of the whole book, and of the rest of the holy scripture, taken from that blessedness which attends upon the study and practice of it. It shews us, the holiness and happiness of a good man, ver. 1 - 3 The sinfulness and misery of a wicked man, ver. 4, 5. The ground and reason of both, ver. 6.

1 Blessed - The Hebrew words are very emphatical: O the blessedness of that man! Counsel - That doth not lead his life according to their counsel, or manner of living. Standeth - Which notes a more settled abode in it. Way - In their manner of conversation. Seat - Which notes a constant and resolved perseverance in their wicked courses. Scornful - Of those who make a mock of sin, and scoff at goodness and goodmen. Divers observe a gradation in this verse; the following clause still exceeding the former, for standing is more than walking, and sitting more than standing; and sinners in scripture use, are worse than the ungodly, and the scornful are the worst of sinners.
2 Day and night - Not seldom and slightly, but diligently, and constantly.
3 Whither - His happiness is not short and transitory, but, like those trees which are continually green and flourishing.
4 Ungodly - Their condition is far different. Chaff - They are restless and unquiet: their seeming felicity, hath no firm foundation, but quickly vanishes and flees away as chaff before the wind.
5 Not stand - Not endure the trial. Judgment - In the great and general judgment of the world.
6 Knoweth - He approves, loves, and delights in them, and therefore will recompence them. Perish - All their designs and courses shall come to nothing, and they shall perish with them.

Chapter II

There is nothing in this psalm which is not applicable to Christ, but some things which are not all applicable to David. Threatenings denounced against the adversaries of Christ's kingdom, ver. 1 - 6. Promises made to Christ, ver. 7 - 9. Counsel given to all, to submit to him, ver. 10 - 12.

1 Heathen - Who did so against David, 2Sam 5:6,17 1Chron 14:8, and against Christ, Luke 18:32 Acts 4:25, &c.
2 The kings - Herod, and Pilate and others with or after them. Earth - So called in way of contempt and to shew their madness in opposing the God of heaven. Set - The word denotes the combination of their counsels and forces. Anointed - Against the king whom God hath chosen and exalted.
3 And cast - The same thing expressed with more emphasis. Let us not only break off their yoke and the cords by which it is fastened upon us, but let us cast them far away.
4 Sitteth - As the king of the whole world. Heavens - As an evidence both of God's clear and certain knowledge of all things that are done below, and of his sovereign and irresistible power. Laugh - Shall despise them and all their crafty devices.
6 Yet - Notwithstanding all their artifices and combinations. My king - Who ruleth in my stead, and according to my will, and for my glory. Zion - Over my church and people. Zion strictly taken, was an hill on the north part of Jerusalem, where there was a strong fort, called the city of David, but in a more large sense it is put for the city of Jerusalem, for the temple of Jerusalem, built upon the hill of Moriah, which was either a part of mount Sion, or adjoining to it; for the church of the Jews, and for the Christian church.
7 The decree - The will and appointment of God concerning this. My sin - Which tho' it may in some sort be said to, or of David, yet much more properly belongs to Christ, who is commonly known by this title both in the Old and New Testament, and to whom this title is expressly appropriated by the holy ghost, who is the best interpreter of his own words, Acts 13:33 Heb 1:5. This day - This may be understood either,
  1. Of his eternal generation. This day, from all eternity, which is well described by this day, because in eternity there is no succession, no [yesterday,] no [tomorrow,] but it is all as one continued day or moment without change or flux; or,
  2. Of the manifestation of Christ's eternal son - ship in time; which was done both in his birth and life, when his being the son of God was demonstrated by the testimony of the angel, Luke 1:32, and of God the Father, Matt 3:17 17:5, and by his own words and works; and in his resurrection, which seems to be here mainly intended, of which day this very place is expounded, Acts 13:33. When Christ was in a most solemn manner declared to be the son of God with power, Rom 1:4.
8 Earth - Not only the Jewish nation, but the whole world.
9 Them - Those that will not quietly submit to thee, shall be crushed and destroyed by thee. This was in part fulfilled, when the Jews who persisted in unbelief, were destroyed by the Romans power: And in the destruction of the Pagan power, when the Christian religion came to be established. But it will not be compleatly fulfilled, 'till all opposing power and principality be put down.
10 Now - While you have time for repentance and submission.
11 Fear - With an awful sense of his great and glorious majesty. Rejoice - Do not esteem his yoke your dishonour and grievance; but rejoice in this inestimable grace and benefit. Trembling - This is added to warn them of taking heed that they do not turn this grace of God into wantonness.
12 Kiss - In token of your subjection and adoration; whereof this was a sign among the eastern nations. The son - The son of God. Ye perish - Be taken out of the way by death or destruction. Wrath - The least degree of his anger is terrible.

Chapter III

David complains to God of his enemies, ver. 1, 2. Comforts himself in God, and the experience of his goodness, ver. 3 - 6. Triumphs in the salvation of God, ver. 7, 8 A psalm of David, when he fled from Absalom his son.

2 My soul - Of me: the soul being commonly put for the person. In God - God hath utterly forsaken him. Selah - This word is no where used but in this poetical book, and in the song of Habakkuk. Probably it was a musical note, directing the singer either to lift up his voice, to make a pause, or to lengthen the tune. But withal, it is generally placed at some remarkable passage; which gives occasion to think that it served also to quicken the attention of the singer and hearer.
3 A shield - My defence. My glory - Thou hast formerly given, and wilt farther give occasion of glorying in thy power and favour. Lifter up - Thou wilt restore me to my former power and dignity.
4 His hill - Out of heaven, so called, Psal 15:1.
5 Slept - Securely, casting all my cares upon God. Awaked - After a sweet and undisturbed sleep.
7 Cheek bone - Which implies contempt and reproach. Teeth - Their strength and the instruments of their cruelty. He compares them to wild beasts.

Chapter IV

David prays, reproves the wicked, and testifies the happiness of the righteous, ver. 1 - 3. Exhorts them to consider and serve God, ver. 4 - 5. Declares his own experience of the grace of God, ver. 6 - 8. To the chief musician on Neginoth, A psalm of David.

Title of the psalm. Chief musician - The director of the musick of the temple. Neginoth - Or, on stringed instruments, as this word is translated, Hab 3:19.

1 O God - The witness and defender of my righteous cause.
2 My glory - By his glory probably he means that honour which God had conferred upon him. Vanity - Wickedness. Lying - Those calumnies which they raised against him, to make him odious to all the people.
3 Godly - Me, whom, though you traduce as an hypocrite, God hath pronounced to he a man after his own heart, 1Sam 13:14. For himself - In his stead, or to be his vicegerent, as all kings are, and especially the kings of God's own people.
4 In awe - Be afraid, if not of me, yet of God, who hath engaged in my cause. Sin not - By prosecuting your rebellion against God's authority. On your bed - Calmly consider these things in the silent night, when you are at leisure from distracting business. Be still - Compose your tumultuous minds.
5 Offer - Unto God, that he may be reconciled to you. Righteousness - Righteous sacrifices; which requires that the persons offering them be righteous and do righteous things, and offer them with an honest mind, with faith and true repentance. Without which, he intimates, that all their sacrifices were of no esteem with God, and would be wholly unprofitable to them.
6 Many - Of my followers, who are weary of waiting upon God. Who - Who will put an end to our troubles, and give us tranquility. Lift up - Upon me and my friends. Give us an assurance of thy love, and evidence it by thy powerful assistance.
7 Thou hast - Whatsoever thou shalt do with me for the future, I have at present unspeakable satisfaction in the testimonies of thy love to my soul; more than worldly persons have in the time of a plentiful harvest.
8 In peace - In tranquility of mind, resting securely upon God's promises.

Chapter V

David beseeches God to hear his prayer, ver. 1 - 3. Assures himself of God's justice against his enemies, ver. 4 - 6. Declares his resolution: to serve God, ver. 7. Prays for himself and the people of God, and against his enemies, ver. 8 - 12. To the chief musician upon Nehiloth, A psalm of David.

Title of the psalm. Nehiloth - This is no where else used in scripture. It is thought to signify a wind - instrument, as Neginoth signified stringed instruments.

1 Meditation - My prayer accompanied with deep thoughts and fervent affections of soul.
3 Morning - Every morning. As soon as I wake, I am still with thee, as he saith, Psal 139:18. The first thing that I do is to pray to thee.
4 Surely - Thou dost not approve of, nor delight in them, or in their prayers. Dwelt - Have any fellowship with thee.
7 Come - With holy boldness and confidence. Mercy - Trusting only in thy great mercy. Fear - With an holy dread and reverence of thy majesty. Towards - Looking towards it, when I cannot come to it.
8 Righteousness - In thy righteous laws. Because - That I may give them no occasion of slandering me, or religion for my sake. The way - The way wherein thou wouldst have to one walk. Plain - That I may clearly discern it, and readily walk in it.
9 Throat - Wide opened ready to devour all that come within their reach. A metaphor from wild beasts gaping for the prey.
10 Destroy - Condemn and punish them. Cast - Out of thy land, and from among thy people.

Chapter VI

David being sick both in body and mind, because he had offended God, presents his misery before him, ver. 1 - 3. Begs the return of his favour, ver. 4 - 7. Assures himself of an answer of peace, ver. 8 - 10. To the chief musician on Neginoth, upon Sheminith, A psalm of David.

Title of the psalm. Upon Sheminith - Or, upon the eighth. It is thought to be the loftiest note, as Alamoth is the lowest; but this is only conjecture; the Jews themselves have no certain knowledge of their own ancient musick.

2 Bones - My inmost parts.
5 In death - Among the dead. Remembrance - He speaks of the remembrance or celebration of God's grace in the land of the living, to the edification of God's church, and the propagation of true religion among men; which is not done in the other life.
6 With my tears - It well becomes the greatest spirits to be tender, and to relent under the tokens of God's displeasure. David who could face Goliath himself, melts into tears at the remembrance of sin, and under the apprehension of Divine wrath, and it is no diminution to his character.
8 Hath heard - By the workings of God's grace upon his heart, he knew his prayer was accepted. His tears had a voice, in the ears of the God of mercy. Silent tears are no speechless ones. Our tears are cries to God.
10 Ashamed - Of their vain confidence. Return - Repent of their sins and return to their obedience.

Chapter VII

David prays for deliverance from his enemies, ver. 1, 2. Appeals to God for his innocence, ver. 3 - 5. Prays to him to judge his cause, ver. 6 - 9. Expresses his confidence in God, ver. 10 - 17. Shiggaion of David, which he sang unto the Lord, concerning the words of Cush the Benjamite.

Title of the psalm. Shiggaion - This seems to be the name of a kind of song, or instrument, which then was well known, but now is only matter of conjecture. Words - The false report raised by him. Cush - Probably some eminent commander or courtier under Saul.

2 Lest - Mine enemy. Tear - Out of my body.
3 Hands - Which Cush and others falsely lay to my charge. Iniquity - In my actions.
4 Deliver - When it was in my power to destroy him, as 1Sam 24:2 - 6.
6 Lift up - Glorify thyself, and shew thyself to be above them. Commanded - To execute that righteous sentence, which thou hast commanded, appointed, and declared by thy prophet Samuel.
7 Compass - They will come from all parts to worship thee, and offer to thee praises and sacrifices. High - To thy tribunal, to sit there and judge my cause. An allusion to earthly tribunals, which generally are set up on high above the people.
9 O - Put a stop to their wicked practices.
11 Every day - Even then, when his providence seems to favour them, and they are most secure and confident.
12 He will - God will hasten, and speedily execute his judgments upon him.
13 Him - For the wicked. Ordaineth - Designs or fits for this very use. Of all sinners, persecutors are set up as the fairest marks of Divine wrath. They set God at defiance but cannot set themselves out of the reach of his judgments.
14 Travelleth - This metaphor denotes his deep design, and vigorous endeavours for doing mischief, and his restlessness and pain 'till he have accomplished it.

Chapter VIII

David extols the majesty, power, and providence of God, ver. 1, 2. And his loving - kindness to mankind, ver. 3 - 5. In giving him dominion over this lower world, ver. 6 - 9. To the chief musician upon Gittith, A psalm of David.

Title of the psalm. Gittith - This also is supposed to be the name of a tune, or instrument.

1 In - Not only in Israel, but among all nations. Which shews that this psalm speaks of the Messiah, and the times of the New Testament. Heavens - Where thy throne of glory is established, where the blessed angels celebrate thy praises, where Christ sitteth at thy right hand in glorious majesty, from whence he poureth down excellent gifts upon babes.
2 Babes - Weak and foolish, and contemptible persons, who are frequently called babes or children. Such are very unfit to grapple with an enemy: and therefore when such persons conquer the most powerful and malicious enemies, it must needs confound them, and advance the glory of God: as indeed it did, when such mean persons as the apostles, and disciples of Christ, maintained and propagated the gospel, in spite of all the wit, power, and rage of their enemies. Ordained - Perfectly or firmly settled strength; that is, the praise of his strength or power, Mat 21:16, it is rendered praise. Still - Silence and confound them. Avenger - The devil, and all who are his vassals and espouse his quarrel.
3 The moon - Either the sun is included under this general title: or he omitted it, because he made this psalm by night. Ordained - Placed in that excellent and unalterable order, and directed to their several motions.
4 What is man - How mean and inconsiderable a thing is man, if compared with thy glorious majesty. Man - Heb. infirm, or miserable man. By which it is apparent that he speaks of man, not according to the state of his creation, but as fallen into a state of sin and misery, and mortality. Mindful - Carest for him, and conferest such high favours upon him. The son - Heb. the son of Adam, that great apostate from God, the sinful son of a sinful father, his son by likeness of disposition and manners, no less than by procreation. All which tends to magnify the following mercy. Visitest - Not in anger, as that word is sometimes used, but with thy grace and mercy.
5 For - Thou hast in Christ mercifully restored man to his primitive estate, wherein he was but one remove below the angels; from which he was fallen by sin. Crowned - Man, fallen and lost man: who is actually restored to glory and dominion in Christ his head and representative, who received this crown and dominion for man's good, and in his stead; which he will in due time communicate to his members. And so the two expositions of this place concerning mankind and concerning Christ, may be reconciled. For he speaks of that honourable estate conferred first upon Christ, and then by his hands upon mankind. But the words more literally rendered are, Thou madest him a little less than God. And hence some have inferred, that man in his original state was the highest of all creatures.

Chapter IX

David praises God for giving him victory over his enemies, ver. 1 - 6. Triumphs in confidence that God would judge the world and protect his people, ver. 7 - 10. Calls others to praise him, ver. 11, 12. Prays for help, and praises God, ver. 13 - 20. To the chief musician upon Muth - labben, A psalm of David.

Title of the psalm. Muth - labben - This also seems to be a title of some tune, or instrument: of which we may be content to be ignorant, as the Jewish doctors are.

3 Turned back - Put to flight.
7 But - Though cities and people may perish, yet the Lord abides for ever. Which is sufficient for the terror of his enemies, and the comfort of his church.
10 Thy name - Thy infinite power and wisdom, and faithfulness and goodness. The name of God is frequently put for God. Put their trust - The experience of thy faithfulness to thy people in all ages, is a just ground for their confidence.
11 Zion - Whose special and gracious presence is there. People - To the heathen nations.
12 Blood - The bloodshed of his innocent and holy ones: which though he may not seem to regard for a season, yet he will certainly call the authors of it to a severe account. Them - The humble, as it follows, or the oppressed, ver.9, that trust in him, and seek to him, ver.10, whom he seemed to have forgotten.
14 Gates - In the great assemblies. These gates he elegantly opposes to the former. Of - Of the people who live or meet together in Zion. For cities are as it were mothers to their people, and the people are commonly called their daughters. So the names of the daughters of Egypt, Jer 46:11, and of Edom, Lam 4:21,22, and of Tyre, Psal 45:12, are put for the people of those places.
16 Higgaion - This is either a musical term, or a note of attention, intimating that the matter deserves deep meditation, or consideration, as the word signifies.
17 Forget - That do not regard God, nor his precepts, nor his threatenings and judgments.

Chapter X

David complains of and describes the wicked, ver. 1 - 15. Prays to God to appear against them, and rejoices in the prospect of it, ver. 12 - 18.

3 Boasteth - He glorieth in his very sins which are his shame, and especially in the satisfaction of his desires.
4 Countenance - So called, because though pride be properly seated in the heart, yet it is manifest in the countenance.
5 Judgments - Thy threatenings denounced against, and punishments inflicted upon sinners. Are far - He doth not regard or fear them: yea he despises them, being confident that he can blow them away with a breath. This is a gesture of contempt or disdain, both in scripture, and other authors.
7 Tongue - Under his fair and plausible speeches, mischief is hid and covered. Vanity - Or, injury, the vexation or oppression of other men.
8 Sitteth - Not within the villages, but in the ways bordering upon them, or leading to them, as robbers use to do. Are set - Heb. Are hid. He watches and looks out of his lurking - place. He alludes still to the practices of robbers.
10 Croucheth - Like a lion (for he continues the same metaphor) which lies close upon the ground, partly that he may not be discovered, and partly that he may more suddenly and surely lay hold on his prey.
13 Contemn - Why dost thou by giving them impunity, suffer and occasion them to despise thee?
14 Requite - Heb. to give (to restore or pay the mischief which they have done to others) with thy hand, by thy own extraordinary providence, because the oppressed were destitute of all other succours. Fatherless - Of such as have no friend or helper, one kind of them being put for all.
15 Seek - Search for it, and punish these wicked atheists. 'Till - No such wickedness be left in the world, or at least in the church.
16 Is king - To whom it belongs to protect his subjects. Therefore his peoples case is never desperate, seeing he ever lives to help them. The heathen - The Canaanites; whom God, as king of the world, expelled, and gave their land to his people. By which great example he confirms his faith and hope for the future. His land - Out of Canaan, which God calls his land, because he gave it to them, and fixed his presence and dwelling in it.
17 Prepare - By thy grace and good spirit, that they may so pray as thou wilt hear.
18 To judge - To give sentence for them, and against their enemies. The man - Earthly and mortal men, who yet presume to contend with thee their maker.

Chapter XI

David encourages himself in God, against the attempts of his enemies, ver. 1 - 3. Asserts the dominion and providence of God, ver. 4 - 7 To the chief musician, A psalm of David.

1 Ye - Mine enemies.
2 For lo - David having directed his speech to his enemies, now turns it to God, and pours out before him his complaints. Ready - They lay designs for my destruction and make all things ready to execute them.
3 Foundations - Piety, justice, fidelity, and mercy, which are the pillars or foundations of a state or kingdom. What - The condition of all righteous men will be desperate.
4 Temple - In heaven; which is mentioned as an evidence of his glorious majesty, of his sovereign power and dominion over all men and things, and of his accurate inspection into all men and their actions. Throne - Where he sits to examine all causes, and to give righteous sentence according to every man's works. Try - He throughly discerns all men, their most inward and secret actions: and therefore he sees and will reward my innocency, notwithstanding all the calumnies of mine enemies; and withal he sees all their secret designs, and will discover and defeat them.
5 Trieth - He chastens even righteous persons, yet still he loves them, and therefore will in due time deliver them. But as for the wicked, God hates them, and will severely punish them.
6 Rain - Send them plentifully, swiftly, and suddenly, as rain commonly falls from heaven. Snares - Grievous plagues or judgments, which are called snares, because wicked men are often surprized with them when they least expect them. And because they cannot escape them, or get out of them; but are held fast and destroyed by them. Horrible tempests - Dreadful judgments so called, in allusion to the destruction of Sodom by these means. But this he seems to speak not so much of present calamities, as of eternal punishments. This - Is their portion, and as it were the meat and drink appointed them by God.

Chapter XII

David begs help of God, having no man whom he could trust, ver. 1, 2. Describes the wicked and assures himself, that God would punish them, and preserve the just, ver. 3 - 8. To the chief musician upon Sheminith, A psalm of David.

Title of the psalm. Sheminith - The same title is prefixed to Psalm 6:1.

4 Prevail - By raising and spreading evil reports concerning him. Our own - At our own disposal to speak what we please, who can control or restrain us?
5 Puffeth - From him that despises him, and hopes to destroy him with a puff of breath.
6 Pure - Without the least mixture of falsehood; and therefore shall infallibly be fulfilled.
7 Thou shalt keep them - Thy words or promises: these thou wilt observe and keep, both now, and from this generation for ever.
8 Walk - They fill all places, and go about boldly and securely.

Chapter XIII

David complains to God, ver. 1, 2. Prays for help, ver. 3, 4. Rejoices in hope, ver. 5, 6. To the chief musician, A psalm of David.

2 How long - Shall I be in such perplexities, not knowing what course to take?
3 Lighten - Revive and comfort, and deliver me from the darkness of death, which is ready to come upon me.
6 I will sing - It is a common thing for David and other prophets to speak of future deliverances as if they were already come, that so they may signify both the infallible certainty of the thing, and their firm assurance thereof.

Chapter XIV

The atheism and corruption of mankind, ver. 1 - 3. An expostulation with sinners, ver. 4 - 6. A prayer for the salvation of God, ver. 7. To the chief musician, A psalm of David.

1 The fool - The wicked man. Good - That is, actions really good or pleasing to God.
2 Looked - God knoweth all things without any enquiry: but he speaks after the manner of men. Upon - Upon the whole Israelitish nation, and upon all mankind for he speaks of all except his people, and the righteous ones, who are opposed to these, ver.4,5.
3 Gone - From God, and from the rule which he hath given them. Filthy - Loathsome and abominable to God.
4 Bread - With as little remorse, and with as much greediness. Call not - They are guilty not only of gross injustice towards men, but also of horrid impiety and contempt of God.
5 There - Upon the spot, where they practised these insolences, God struck them with a panick fear. For - God is on their side, and therefore their enemies have cause to tremble.
6 Because - This was the ground of their contempt, that he lived by faith in God's promise and providence.
7 O that - These words immediately concern the deliverance of Israel out of that sinful state, in which they now were; which having described, he concludes, with a prayer to God to help them out of Zion, where the ark then was, but principally they design the spiritual redemption and salvation of all God's Israel by the Messiah. The captivity - His captive people. The children of Jacob, as Aaron is named for his sons, 1Chron 12:27.

Chapter XV

The scope of this short, but excellent psalm, is to shew us the way to heaven. Here is a question proposed, ver. 1. The answer to it, ver. 2 - 5. A psalm of David.

1 Who - Who shall so dwell in thy church here, as to dwell with thee for ever in heaven?
2 Uprightly - Loving, and serving God, and loving his neighbour not in word only, but in truth; and this constantly. Worketh - Makes it his business to do justly, to give to every one his due, first to God, and then to men. Speaketh - His words and professions to God and men, agree with the thoughts and purposes of his heart.
3 He - He that doth not speak evil of his neighbour. Neighbour - That is, any man. Nor taketh - Into his mouth, doth not raise it, neither spread or propagate it; or believe it without sufficient reason.
4 Vile - An ungodly man. Honoureth - He highly esteems and loves them, though they be mean as to their worldly condition, and though they may differ from him in some opinions or practices of lesser moment. Sweareth - A promissory oath. Hurt - To his own damage. As if a man solemnly swear, that he will sell him such an estate at a price below the full worth; or that, he will give a poor man such a sum of money, which afterwards he finds inconvenient to him. Changeth not - His purpose, but continues firm and resolved to perform his promise.
5 To usury - In such a manner as is contrary to God's law: of which see otherwise, Exod 22:25 Levit 25:36,37, &c. Reward - Or, a bribe for him who hath a bad cause. Moved - He shall abide with God here, and when he dies be for ever with the Lord.

Chapter XVI

David professes his trust in God, his adherence to him and love of his people, ver. 1 - 3. His satisfaction in God, ver. 4 - 7. He speaks in the person of Christ, of Gods presence with him, of his resurrection and the glory that should follow, ver. 8 - 11. Michtam of David.

Title of the psalm. Michtam - This seems to be a title belonging to the musick or the song, which, with the rest, is now lost and unknown. As David was both a member, and an eminent type, of Christ, he speaks of himself sometimes in the one and sometimes in the other capacity: and therefore having spoken of himself as a member of Christ, in the former part of the psalm, he proceeds to consider himself as a type of Christ, and being inspired by the holy Ghost: towards the close he speaks such things, as though they might be accommodated to himself in a very imperfect sense, yet could not properly, belong to any but to Christ, to whom therefore they are justly appropriated in the New Testament.

2 To thee - Thou dost not need me or my service, nor art capable of any advantage from it.
3 But - I bear a singular respect and love to all saints, for thy sake, whose friends and servants they are, and whose image they bear. This more properly agrees to David, than to Christ, whose goodness was principally designed for, and imparted to sinners.
4 Sorrows - Having shewed his affection to the servants of the true God, he now declares what an abhorrency he has for those that worship idols. Offerings - In which the Gentiles used sometimes to drink part of the blood of their sacrifices. Names - Of those other gods mentioned before.
5 The Lord - I rejoice in God as my portion, and desire no better, no other felicity. Cup - The portion which is put into my cup, as the ancient manner was in feasts, where each had his portion of meat, and of wine allotted to him. Lot - My inheritance divided to me by lot, as the custom then was.
6 Lines - My portion, which was measured with lines. Are fallen - In a land flowing with milk and honey, and above all, blessed with the presence and knowledge of God.
7 The Lord - Hath inspired that wisdom into me, by which I have chosen the Lord for my portion, and am so fully satisfied with him. Reins - My inward thoughts and affections, being inspired and moved by the holy spirit. Instruct - Direct me how to please God, and put my whole trust in him. Night - Even when others are asleep, my mind is working upon God, and improving the silence and solitude of holy meditations.
8 I have set - I have always presented him to my mind, as my witness and judge, as my patron and protector. Hitherto David seems to have spoken with respect to himself, but now he is transported by the spirit of prophecy, and carried above himself, to speak as a type of Christ, in whom this and the following verses were truly accomplished. Christ as man did always set his father's will and glory before him. Right - hand - To strengthen, protect, assist, and comfort me: as this assistance of God was necessary to Christ as man. Moved - Though the archers shoot grievously at me, and both men and devils seek my destruction, and God sets himself against me as an enemy, yet I am assured he will deliver me out of all my distresses.
9 My glory - My tongue, which is a man's glory and privilege, above all other living creatures. Rejoiceth - Declares my inward joy. For this word signifies not so much eternal joy, as the outward demonstrations of it. My flesh - My body shall quietly rest in the grave. Shall rest - in confident assurance of its incorruption there, and of its resurrection to an immortal life: the flesh or body is in itself, but a dead lump of clay; yet hope is here ascribed to it figuratively, as it is to the brute creatures, Rom 8:19.
10 Hell - In the state of the dead. Holy one - Me thy holy son, whom thou hast sanctified and sent into the world. It is peculiar to Christ, to be called the holy one of God. To see - To be corrupted or putrefied in the grave, as the bodies of others are.
11 Life - Thou wilt raise me from the grave, and conduct me to the place and state of everlasting felicity. Presence - In that heavenly paradise, where thou art gloriously present, where thou dost clearly and fully discover the light of thy countenance; whereas in this life thou hidest thy face and shewest us only thy back - parts. Right - hand - Which he mentions as a place of the greatest honour, the place where the saints are placed at the last day, and where Christ himself is said to sit, Psal 110:1. Pleasures - All our joys are empty and defective: But in heaven there is fulness of joy. Our pleasures here are transient and momentary; but those at God's right hand are pleasures for evermore. For they are the pleasures of immortal souls, in the enjoyment of an eternal God.

Chapter XVII

David appealing to God for his integrity, begs for defence against his enemies, ver. 1 - 9. Describes their wickedness, ver. 10 - 12. Prays for deliverance from them, and rests in hope, ver. 13 - 15. A prayer of David.

1 The right - Regard my righteous cause.
2 Sentence - Judgment on my behalf. Come - From thy tribunal.
3 Proved - Or, searched or tried it, by many temptations and afflictions. Night - When mens minds being freed from the distraction of business, and from the society of men, they act more vigorously and freely, according to their several inclinations. Tried - As gold - smiths do metals. Nothing - Nothing of unrighteousness. Purposed - I have resolved, upon deliberation, as the word implies. Mouth - I am so far from practising against Saul's life, as they charge me, that I will not wrong him so much as in a word.
4 Concerning - Observing the works of the men of this age, how wicked they are, I was resolved to take more care in ordering my own actions. By - By the help of thy blessed word. Paths - The customs and practices. Destroyer - Or, of the violent man: such as Saul, and his courtiers and soldiers.
7 By - By thy great power.
10 They - They live in splendor and prosperity.
11 Steps - In all our ways. We go from place to place, to rocks, and caves, and woods; but wheresoever we go they are at hand, and ready to surround us. Eyes - They keep their eyes fixed upon us. Bowing - Couching down upon the earth, that they may watch the fittest opportunity to surprize us.
13 Sword - Thy instrument to execute vengeance upon thine enemies. Do not punish me with this rod: let me fall into thy hands, and not into the hands of men.
14 Thy hand - Wherewith thou dost correct me. World - Who set their hearts upon this world, and neither have, nor desire any other portion. Belly - Mind or appetite, as that word is used, Job 20:20. Prov 20:30. Treasure - With extraordinary wealth and glory. Children - When many of thy faithful servants are barren, these are blessed with a numerous posterity.
15 I will - I do not place my portion in earthly treasures, but in beholding God's face, in the enjoyment of God's presence and favour; which is enjoyed in part in this life, but not fully. Satisfied - The time is coming, wherein I shall be abundantly satisfied with beholding thy face. Awake - When I arise from he dead. Likeness - With the image of God stamped upon my glorified soul.

Chapter XVIII

David triumphs in God, ver. 1 - 3. Praises God for his past deliverances, ver. 4 - 19. Takes the comfort of his integrity, which God had thereby cleared up, ver. 20 - 28. Gives God the glory of all his victories, ver. 29 - 42. Express his hope of what God would do farther, ver. 43 - 50. This psalm with some few and small variations, is written, 2Sam 22:1 - 51. It was composed by David towards the end of his life, upon the occasion here mentioned. To the chief musician, A psalm of David, the servant of the LORD, who spake unto the LORD the words of this song, in the day that the LORD delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul, and he said:

Title of the psalm. Servant - Who esteems it a greater honour to be thy servant, than to be king of Israel. Saul - After the death of Saul, and the conquest of all his succeeding enemies, and his own firm establishment in his kingdom.

1 Love - Most affectionately, and with my whole soul; as the Hebrew word signifies.
2 Rock - To which I flee for refuge, as the Israelites did to their rocks. Horn - It is a metaphor from those beasts whose strength lies in their horns.
4 Death - Dangerous and deadly troubles. Floods - Their multitude, and strength, and violent assaults, breaking in upon me like a flood.
5 Sorrows - Which brought me to the brink of the grave. Death - Had almost taken hold of me, before I was aware.
6 Temple - Out of his heavenly habitation.
7 Then - Then God appeared on my behalf in a glorious manner, to the terror and confusion of all mine enemies, which is here compared to an earthquake.
8 There went, &c. - All these seem to be figurative expressions, denoting the greatness of his anger.
9 Bowed - By producing thick and dark clouds, whereby the heavens seem to come down to the earth. Came - Not by change of place, but by the manifestation of his presence and power on my behalf.
10 Cherub - Or, upon the cherubim, upon the angels, who are also called God's chariots, Psal 68:17, upon which he is said to sit and ride. All which is not to be understood grossly, but only to denote God's using the ministry of angels, in raising such storms and tempests. Fly - As swiftly as the wind.
11 Darkness - He covered himself with dark clouds. Waters - Watery vapours.
12 At - His glorious and powerful appearance. Passed - Or, passed away, vanished, being dissolved into showers.
14 Arrows - Lightnings. Them - Mine enemies.
15 Discovered - By mighty earthquakes, which overturned the earth, and made its lower parts visible.
18 Prevented - They had almost surprized me.
19 Brought - Out of my straits and difficulties, into a state of freedom and comfort. So he ascribes all his mercies to God's good pleasure, as the first spring of them.
20 Righteousness - Just cause. The innocency of my actions towards Saul, from whose blood I kept my hands pure.
22 Judgments - I diligently studied and considered them.
24 Iniquity - From that sin which I was most inclined or tempted to.
25 Upright - Thou metest to every one the same measure, which he meteth out to others; and therefore thou wilt perform mercy and truth, to those who are merciful and true to others.
26 Pure - Free from the least mixture or appearance of unrighteousness, or unfaithfulness. Froward - Thou wilt cross him and walk contrary to him.
28 Lightest - Given me safety, and comfort, and glory, and posterity also.
29 Troop - Broken through the armed troops of mine enemies. Wall - I have scaled the walls of their strongest cites.
30 Perfect - His providence, though it may sometimes be dark, yet is always wise and just, and unblameable. Tried - The truth of God's promises is approved by innumerable experiences.
31 Who - Our Lord is the only God, and therefore there is none, that can hinder him from accomplishing his own work.
32 Perfect - Perfectly plain and smooth, and clear from impediments.
33 High - places - Confirms me in that high estate into which he hath advanced me.
35 Salvation - Thy protection, which hath been to me like a shield. Held - Kept me from, falling into those mischiefs, which mine enemies designed. Gentleness - Thy clemency, whereby thou hast pardoned my sins; thy grace and benignity.
36 Slipt - As they are apt to do in narrow and uneven ways.
43 People - From contentions, and seditions, under Saul, and Ishbosheth, and Absalom. Heathens - Of the Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, Syrians, and others. Not known - Even barbarous and remote nations.
44 Hear - As soon as they understand my will and pleasure, they shall instantly comply with it.
45 Close places - Out of their strong holds, where they shall lurk for fear of me.
46 The Lord - He and he only is the true living God.
48 Violent man - From Saul: whom for honour's sake he forbears to mention.
49 Heathen - David is here transported beyond himself, and speaks this in special relation to Christ who was to be his seed, and of whom he was an eminent type, and by whom alone this was done. And therefore this is justly applied to him, and to his calling of the Gentiles, Rom 15:9.
50 His king - To the king whom God himself chose and anointed, and to all his posterity; and especially to the Messiah, who is called David's seed, Acts 13:23 Rom 1:3.

Chapter XIX

The book of the creatures shews us the power and Godhead of the Creator, ver. 1 - 6. The book of the scriptures shews us his will; the excellency thereof, ver. 7 - 11. A prayer against sin, ver. 12, 14. To the chief musician, A psalm of David.

1 The heavens - They are as a legible book, wherein he that runs may read it. The glory - His eternal power and Godhead, his infinite wisdom and goodness. Firmament - Or, the expansion, all the vast space extended from the earth to the highest heavens, with all its goodly furniture.
2 Day - Every day and night repeats these demonstrations of God's glory. Uttereth - Or, poureth forth, constantly and abundantly, as a fountain doth water; So this Hebrew word signifies. Knowledge - Gives us a clear knowledge or discovery of God their author.
3 Heard - Or, understood; there are divers nations in the world, which have several languages, so that one cannot discourse with, or be understood by another, but the heavens are such an universal teacher, that they can speak to all people, and be clearly understood by all.
4 Line - Their lines, the singular number being put for the plural. And this expression is very proper, because the heavens do not teach men audibly, or by speaking to their ears, but visibly by propounding things to their eyes, which is done in lines or writings. Gone - Is spread abroad. Earth - So as to be seen and read, by all the inhabitants of the earth. Words - Their magnificent structure, their exquisite order, and most regular course, by which they declare their author, no less than men discover their minds by their words. Sun - Which being the most illustrious and useful of all the heavenly bodies, is here particularly mentioned.
5 Bridegroom - Gloriously adorned with light as with a beautiful garment, and smiling upon the world with a pleasant countenance. Chamber - In which he is poetically supposed to have rested all night, and thence to break forth as it were on a sudden. Strong man - Conscious and confident of his own strength.
6 The ends - His course is constant from east to west, and thence to the east again. So that there is no part of the earth which doth not one time or other feel the benefit of his light and heat.
7 The law - The doctrine delivered to his church, whether by Moses, or by other prophets. Having discoursed hitherto of the glory of God shining forth in, the visible heavens, he now proceeds to another demonstration of God's glory, which he compares with and prefers before the former. Perfect - Completely discovering both the nature and will of God, and the whole duty of man, what he is to believe and practice, and whatsoever is necessary to his present and eternal happiness. Whereas the creation, although it did declare so much of God, as left all men without excuse, yet did not fully manifest the will of God, nor bring men to eternal salvation. Converting - From sin to God, from whom all men are naturally revolted. Testimony - His law, so called because it is a witness between God and man, what God requires of man, and what upon the performance of that condition, he will do for man. Sure - Heb. faithful or true, which is most necessary in a witness: it will not mislead any man, but will infallibly bring him to happiness. Simple - Even persons of the lowest capacities.
8 Right - Both in themselves, and in their effect, as guiding men in the ready way to eternal happiness. Rejoicing - By the discoveries of God's love to sinful men, in offers and promises of mercy. Commandment - All his commands. Pure - Without the least mixture of error. The eyes - Of the mind, with a compleat manifestation of God's will and man's duty: both which, the works of nature, and all the writings of men discover but darkly and imperfectly.
9 The fear - The law and word of God, because it is both the object and the rule, and the cause of holy fear. Clean - Sincere, not adulterated with any mixture. Constant and unchangeable, the same for substance in all ages. Judgments - God's laws are frequently called his judgments, because they are the declarations of his righteous will, and as it were his judicial sentence by which he expects that men should govern themselves, and by which he will judge them at the last day.
12 Who - Thy law, O Lord, is holy and just and good. But I fall infinitely short of it. Cleanse - Both by justification, through the blood of thy son; and by sanctification thro' thy holy spirit. Though the first may seem to be principally intended, because he speaks of his past sins. Secret - From the guilt of such sins as were secret either, from others; such as none knows but God and my own conscience: or, from myself; such as I never observed, or did not discern the evil of. Pardon my unknown sins, of which I never repented particularly, as I should have done.
13 Presumptuous - From known and evident sins, such as are committed against knowledge, against the checks of conscience, and the motions of God's spirit. Dominion - If I be at any time tempted to such sins, Lord let them not prevail over me, and if I do fall into them, let me speedily rise again.
14 Let - Having prayed that God would keep him from sinful actions, he now prays that God would govern, and sanctify his words and thoughts: and this was necessary to preserve him from presumptuous sins, which have their first rise in the thoughts. Redeemer - This expression seems to be added emphatically, and with special respect to Christ, to whom alone this word Goel can properly belong.

Chapter XX

A prayer for the king, ver. 1 - 4. The king and the people rejoice in God, and pray for his help, ver. 5 - 9. To the chief musician, A psalm of David.

1 God of Jacob - God had made a covenant with Jacob and his posterity.
2 Sanctuary - From the tabernacle in Zion, where the ark then was; toward which the Israelites directed their prayers.
5 Rejoice - Hereby they shew their confidence in God, and their assurance of the victory. Name - To the honour of God. Set up - In way of triumph.
6 Now - We are already sure of victory by the consideration of God's power and faithfulness and love to David, and to his people. They speak as one person, because they were unanimous in this prayer. Saveth - Will certainly save. Strength - This shews how God will hear him, even by saving him with a strong hand.
7 Remember - Trust in it.
8 Brought down - From their horses and chariots, to which they trusted. Stand - Stand firmly, and keep the field.
9 Let the king - God, the supreme monarch, the king of kings, and in a peculiar manner the king of Israel.

Chapter XXI

A thanksgiving for blessings received, ver. 1 - 6. An expression of confidence in God, ver. 7 - 13. To the chief musician, A psalm of David.

Title of the psalm. Of David - The subject of this psalm is the same with the former, both being made for the peoples use, concerning the king. Only the prayers there used, are here turned into praises, for the blessings received in answer to their prayers. And as David was an illustrious type of Christ, so in many of these expressions he looks beyond himself to Christ, in whom they are properly, and fully accomplished.

3 Prevent - Crowning him with manifold blessings, both more and sooner than he expected. With - With excellent blessings.
4 For ever - Thou gavest him a long life and reign here, and after that didst translate him to live with thee for ever. But this was more eminently fulfilled in Christ, who asked of his father, life, or to be saved from death, Heb 5:7, though with submission to his will: but his father, though he saw it necessary to take away his temporal life, yet instantly gave him another, far more noble, even the perfect possession of an everlasting life both in his soul and body, at his right hand.
5 Glory - His fame or renown. Salvation - By reason of those great and glorious deliverances which thou hast wrought both for him, and by him.
6 Countenance - Smiling upon him, by thy grace and favour.
9 Oven - Like wood, which when it is cast in there, is quickly consumed.
10 Fruit - Their children. God will take away both root and branch, the parents and all that wicked race.
11 Thee - Against God, not directly, but by consequence, because it was against David, whom God had anointed, and against the Lord's people, whose injuries God takes as done to himself.
13 Exalted - By thy own power, or by the manifestation thereof.

Chapter XXII

It is confessed that David was a type of Christ, and that many passages of the Psalms, though literally understood of David, yet had a further and mystical reference to Christ. But there are some other passages, which were directly, and immediately intended for, and are properly to be understood of the Messiah; though withal there may be some respect and allusion to the state of the penman himself. And this seems to be the state of this psalm, which is understood of the Messiah, by the Hebrew doctors themselves, and by Christ himself and by his apostles. And there are many passages in it, which were literally accomplished in him, and cannot be understood of any other. In this psalm David speaks of the humiliation of Christ, ver. 1 - 21. Of the exaltation of Christ, ver. 22 - 31. To the chief musician upon Aijeleth Shahar, A psalm of David.

Title of the psalm. Shahar - This was the title of some musical instrument, name, or song, which was usually sung in the morning.

1 My God - Who art my friend and father, though now thou frownest upon me. The repetition denotes, the depth of his distress, which made him cry so earnestly. Forsaken - Withdrawn the light of thy countenance, the supports and comforts of thy spirit, and filled me with the terrors of thy wrath: this was in part verified in David, but much more fully in Christ. Roaring - My out - cries forced from me, by my miseries.
3 But thou art - Just and true in all thy ways, this he adds to strengthen his faith, and to enforce his prayers, and prevail with God for the honour of his holy name, to hear and help him. Inhabitest - Whom thy people are perpetually praising.
6 A worm - Neglected and despised. People - Not only of the great men, but also of the common people. Which doth not so truly agree to David as to Christ.
7 Shoot out - They gape with their mouths, in mockery. This and the next verse are applied to Christ, Matt 27:39,43.
12 Bulls - Wicked and violent, and potent enemies; for such are so called, Ezek 39:18 Amos 4:1. Of Bashan - As the cattle there bred were, and therefore fierce and furious.
14 Water - My spirits are spent and gone like water which once spilt can never be recovered; my very flesh is melted within me, and I am become as weak as water. Bones - I am as unable to help myself, and as full of torment, as if all my bones were disjointed. Wax - Melted, through fear and overwhelming grief.
15 Dried - I have in a manner no more moisture left in me, than is in a dry potsherd. Cleaveth - Through excessive thirst and drought. Death - Thy providence, delivering me into the power of mine enemies, and by thy terrors in my soul.
16 Dogs - So he calls his enemies for their insatiable greediness, and implacable fierceness against him. Pierced - These words cannot with any probability be applied to David, but were properly and literally verified in Christ.
17 May tell - By my being stretched out upon the cross.
18 They part - This also cannot be applied to David, but was literally fulfilled in Christ, Matt 27:35 John 19:24.
20 Darling - Heb. my only one; his soul, which he so calls, because it was left alone and destitute of friends and helpers.
21 Heard - Answered and delivered me.
22 Declare - When thou hast delivered me. Thy name - that power and faithfulness and goodness, which thou hast manifested on my behalf. Congregations - The same whom he calls the congregation, and the seed of Jacob and Israel: which also does not so fitly agree to David, who never gives this title to any, but such as were near a - kin to him, as it does to Christ, who extends this name to all his disciples, Matt 12:48,49, and to whom this very text is applied, Heb 2:11,12.
24 Abhorred - He did not turn away his face from it, as men do from things which they abhor. From him - For ever: tho' he did so for a time.
25 Great congregation - In the universal church, of Jews and Gentiles.
26 Satisfied - This is doubtless to be understood, of those spiritual blessings, that grace and peace, and comfort, which all believing souls have in the sense of God's love, the pardon of their sins, and the influences of God's spirit. Seek him - That seek his favour. Your heart - He speaks of the same persons still, though there be a change from the third to the second person, as is usual in these poetical books. For ever - Your comfort shall not be short and transitory, as worldly comforts are, but everlasting.
27 The world - All nations from one end of the world to the other. So this is an evident prophecy of the calling of the Gentiles, and a clear proof, that this psalm immediately speaks of Christ; to whom alone, this and divers other passages of it, belong. Remember - They shall remember their former wickedness with grief and shame, and fear; particularly in worshiping dead and impotent idols. They shall remember their great and manifold obligation to God, which they had quite forgotten, his patience in sparing them so long, in the midst of all their impieties, and in giving his son for them: they shall remember the gracious words and glorious works of Christ, what he did, and suffered for them; which possibly divers of them had been eye and ear - witnesses of. The Lord - Into the only true God, and unto Jesus Christ, to whom this name of Jehovah is often ascribed in scripture.
28 For - This is added as a reason, why the Gentiles should be converted, because God is not only God and the Lord of the Jews, but also of the Gentiles, and of all nations.
29 Fat - Kings and princes, and the great men of the world. Shall eat - Shall feed upon the bread of life, Christ and all his benefits. Worship - This is added to shew what kind of eating he spoke of. Go down - That is, all mankind, for none can escape death.
30 A seed - Christ shall not want a seed or posterity, for though the Jewish nation will generally reject him, the Gentiles shall come in their stead. A generation - That believing seed shall be reputed both by God and men, The generation, or people of the Lord, as the Jews formerly were.
31 They - The seed last mentioned. Come - From Judea and Jerusalem (from whence the gospel was first to go forth) to the Gentile world, to the several parts whereof the apostles went upon this errand. His - God's righteousness: his wonderful grace and mercy unto mankind, in giving them Christ and the gospel; for righteousness is often put for mercy or kindness. Unto - Unto succeeding generations. Whereby David gives us a key to understand this psalm, and teaches us that he speaks not here of himself, but of things which were to be done in after - ages, even of the spreading of the gospel among the Gentiles, in the time of the New Testament. That he - They shall declare that this is the work of God, and not of man.

Chapter XXIII

David extolls the goodness of God as his shepherd, and expresses his confidence in him, ver. 1 - 6. A psalm of David.

2 Lie down - To repose myself at noon, as the manner was in those hot countries. Green - Where there is both delight and plenty of provisions.
3 Restoreth - Heb. He bringeth it back; from its errors and wandering. For - Not for any worth in me, but for the glory of his justice, and faithfulness, and goodness.
4 Thy rod and thy staff - Two words denoting the same thing, and both designing God's pastoral care over him.
5 A table - Thou furnishest me with plenty of provisions and comforts. Oil - With aromatic ointments, which were then used at great feasts; thy comforts delight my soul. Runneth over - Thou hast given me a plentiful portions, signified by the cup, given to the guests by the master of the feast.

Chapter XXIV

This psalm is generally thought to have been composed by David, upon bringing the ark of God from the house of Obed - edom, into the tabernacle which David had built for it, 2Sam 6:12,17. Wherein he hath a farther prospect to the temple, which he earnestly desired and intended to build. Moreover because the tabernacle, and temple, and ark, were types of Christ, and of his church and of heaven. David extended his thoughts to them also, or at least the Holy Ghost designed to comprehend them under these typical expressions. He shews God's sovereignty over the world, ver. 1, 2. Who shall receive his blessing, ver. 3 - 6. An exhortation to receive Christ, ver. 7 - 10. A psalm of David.

2 Seas - The whole collection of waters, as well as the sea and the rivers running into it, as that great abyss of waters which is contained in the bowels of the earth.
3 The hill - Zion or Moriah, the place of God's sanctuary and special presence. Having asserted God's dominion over all mankind, he now proposes an important question, by whom God will be served, and his blessing enjoyed? Stand - To minister before him. Standing is the posture of ministers or servants. Who shall serve God, with God's acceptation. Holy place - In the place which he hath sanctified for his service.
4 He - Whose actions and conversation are holy and unblameable. Pure heart - Careful to approve itself to God, as well as to men; ordering a man's very thoughts and affections according to God's word. Vanity - Who doth not value or desire the vain things of this life, such as honours, riches, pleasures; but makes God his portion.
5 The blessing - Grace and glory, and all other good things.
6 The generation - The true progeny which God regards. Face - His grace and favour, which is often called God's face.
7 Lift up - He speaks here of the gates and doors of the temple, which by faith and the spirit of prophecy, he beheld as already built, whose doors he calls Everlasting, not so much because they were made of strong and durable materials, as in opposition to those of the tabernacle, which were removed from place to place. These gates he bids lift up their heads, or tops, by allusion to those gates which have a portcullis, which may be let down or taken up. And as the temple was a type of Christ, and of his church, and of heaven itself; so this place may also contain a representation, either of Christ's entrance into his church, or into the hearts of his faithful people, who are here commanded to set open their hearts and souls for his reception: or of his ascension into heaven, where the saints or angels are poetically introduced as preparing the way, and opening the heavenly gates to receive their Lord and king, returning to his royal habitation with triumph and glory. The king - The Messiah, the king of Israel, and of his church, called the King, or Lord of glory, 1Cor 2:8 James 2:1, both for that glory which is inherent in him, and that which is purchased by him for his members.
8 The Lord - He is no ordinary person, no other than Jehovah, who hath given so many proofs of his almightiness, who hath subdued all his enemies, and is now returned in triumph.
9 Lift up - The same verse is repeated again, to awaken the dulness of mankind, who are so hardly brought to a serious preparation for such solemnities; and to signify the great importance of the matter, contained under these expressions.
10 Of hosts - Under whose command are all the hosts of heaven and earth, angels and men, and all other creatures.

Chapter XXV

David distrest, takes refuge in God, ver. 1 - 7. Shews the goodness of God to them that fear him, ver. 8 - 15. Prays for help against his enemies, and for the church, ver. 16 - 22. A psalm of David.

2 Ashamed - Disappointed of my hope.
3 Cause - Without any provocation of mine.
4 Teach - Teach me my duty, and cause me to keep close to it, notwithstanding all temptations.
8 Upright - Holy and true, in all his declarations and offers of mercy to sinners. Therefore - He will not be wanting to such poor sinners as I am, but will guide them into the way of life and peace.
9 The meek - Such as meekly submit themselves to God, and are desirous to be directed and governed by him. Judgment - In the paths of judgment, in the right way.
10 Paths - All the dealings of God with them, yea even those that are afflictive, are done in kindness and faithfulness to them.
11 For - Or, though (as this particle is often rendered) it be great. Possibly he speaks of his sin against Uriah and Bathsheba. Great - Or, much or manifold. For the Hebrew word signifies both great and much.
12 Chuse - Which God appointeth.
13 At ease - Heb. in Good; in the possession and enjoyment of the true good. The land - Canaan; which was given as an earnest of the whole Covenant of Grace, and all its promises.
14 The secret - His love and favour, which is called his secret, Job 29:4 Prov 3:32, because it is known to none but him that enjoyeth it. Will shew - He will make them clearly to understand it, both its duties and its blessings; neither of which ungodly men rightly understand.
15 Pluck - He will deliver me out of all my troubles.
20 Soul - My life.
22 Israel - If thou wilt not help me, yet spare thy people who suffer for my sake, and in my sufferings.

Chapter XXVI

David professes his integrity, ver. 1 - 8. Deprecates the doom of the wicked, ver. 9, 10. Casts himself upon the mercy of God, ver. 11, 12. A psalm of David.

1 Trusted - I have committed my cause and affairs to thee.
3 For - I dare appeal to thee, because thou knowest I have a deep sense of thy loving - kindness, by which I have been led to love and obey thee.
4 Sat - Continued with them. I have been so far from an imitation of their wicked courses, that I have avoided their company. Vain - With false and deceitful persons. Go in - Into their company.
6 Compass - Approach to thine altar with my sacrifices: which I could not do with any comfort, if I were conscious of those crimes, whereof mine enemies accuse me.
8 House - Thy sanctuary and worship. Honour - Thy glorious and gracious presence.
9 Gather not - Do not bind me up in the same bundle, or put me into the same accursed condition with them.
12 Standeth - I stand upon a sure and solid foundation, being under the protection of God's promise, and his almighty and watchful providence. Congregations - I will not only privately, but in the assemblies of thy people celebrate thy praise.

Chapter XXVII

David declares his confidence in God, ver. 1 - 3. His desire to be in the house of God, ver. 4 - 6. He prays for light and salvation, ver. 7 - 12. And exhorts others to wait upon God, ver. 13, 14. A psalm of David.

2 Light - My counsellor in all my difficulties, and my comforter and deliverer in all my distresses. Strength - The supporter and preserver of my life.
3 In this - That God is my light.
4 Dwell. &c. - Have opportunity of constant attendance upon God. To behold - That there I may delight myself, in the contemplation of thy amiable and glorious majesty, and of thy infinite wisdom, holiness, justice, truth, and mercy.
5 The secret - In his tabernacle, into which mine enemies cannot come. He alludes to the ancient custom of offenders, who used to flee to the tabernacle or altar. Rock - A place high and inaccessible.
9 Away - From thy face or presence, or from the place of thy worship.
11 Because of - That I may neither fall into their hands by my folly, nor give them any occasion of triumphing over me.
13 The living - David was thus earnestly desirous of this mercy in this life, not because he placed his portion in these things; but because the truth and glory of God, were highly concerned in making good the promise of the kingdom to him.

Chapter XXVIII

A prayer for help, ver. 1 - 3. The doom of the wicked, ver. 4, 5. A thanksgiving, closed with prayer, ver. 6 - 9. A psalm of David.

2 Towards - Towards the holy of holies, because there the ark was; from whence God gave oracular answers to his people.
3 Draw not - Do not drag me; as thou dost these, to execution and destruction.
5 Regard not - The providential works of God towards his people.
7 I am helped - He speaks of it as past, because God assured him by his spirit, that he had heard and accepted his prayers.

Chapter XXIX

It is probable David wrote this psalm, during a storm of thunder, lightning, and rain; as that he wrote the eighth in a moon - shining night, and the nineteenth in a sun - shining morning. He calls on the great to give glory to God, ver. 1, 2. Observes his power in thunder and lightning, Ver. 3 - 9. His dominion over the world and care over the church, ver. 10, 11. A psalm of David.

1 Ye - Ye potentates and rulers of the earth. Glory - By an humble and thankful acknowledgment of it.
2 Give, &c. - The honour which he deserves: own him as the Almighty, and the only true God. Holiness - Or, in his holy and beautiful house.
3 The waters - Above in the clouds, which are called waters, Gen 1:7 Psal 18:11. The Divine power displays itself in those high places, which are far above the reach of all earthly potentates. Many - Upon the clouds, in which there are vast treasures of water, and upon which God is said to sit or ride, Psal 18:10,11 104:3.
5 Lebanon - A place famous for strong and lofty cedars.
6 Them - The cedars; which being broken by the thunder, the parts of them are suddenly and violently hurled hither and thither. Sirion - An high mountain beyond Jordan joining to Lebanon. Lebanon and Sirion are said to skip or leap, both here, and Psal 114:4, by a poetical hyperbole.
7 The flames - The lightnings.
8 Kadesh - An eminent wilderness, vast and terrible, and well known to the Israelites, and wherein possibly they had seen, and observed some such effects of thunder.
9 To calve - Through the terror it causes, which hastens the birth. He names the hinds, because they bring forth their young with difficulty, Job 39:1,2. Discovereth - Heb. maketh bare, of its trees, which it breaks or strips of their leaves. Glory - Having shewed the terrible effects of God's power in other places, he now shews the blessed privilege of God's people, that are praising God in his temple, when the rest of the world are trembling under the tokens of his displeasure.
10 The flood - The most violent waters, which sometimes fall from the clouds upon the earth. These are fitly mentioned, as being many times the companions of great thunders. And this may be alleged as another reason, why God's people praised him in his temple, because as he sends terrible tempests and thunders, so he also restrains and over - rules them. Sitteth - He doth sit, and will sit as king for ever, sending such tempests when it pleaseth him.

Chapter XXX

He praises God for delivering him, and exhorts others to praise him, ver. 1 - 5. Recollects his former security, and his prayer when in trouble, ver. 6 - 10. And stirs himself up to thankfulness, ver. 11, 12. A Psalm and song, at the dedication of the house of David.

Title of the psalm. Song - A psalm to be sung with the voice to an instrument. David - At the dedication of David's house, which was built, 2Sam 5:11, and doubtless was dedicated, as God had commanded.

5 Cometh - Speedily and in due season.
7 Mountain - My kingdom: kingdoms are usually called mountains in prophetical writings.
9 Profit - What wilt thou gain by it? The dust - Shall they that are dead celebrate thy goodness in the land of the living? Or, shall my dust praise thee?
11 Sackcloth - Given me occasion to put off that sackcloth, which they used to wear in times of mourning, Esth 4:1 Psal 35:13 Isa 32:11 Joel 1:13. Girded - With joy, as with a garment, surrounding me on every side.
12 My glory - My tongue.

Chapter XXXI

David professes his confidence in God, intermixing prayer to him, ver. 1 - 8. Complains to God and prays for deliverance, ver. 9 - 18. Concludes with giving glory to God, and encouraging others to trust him, ver. 19 - 24. To the chief musician, A psalm of David.

1 Ashamed - Of my confidence in thy promise. Deliver me - According to thy faithfulness and goodness.
5 My spirit - My soul or life; to preserve it from the malice of mine enemies. For - Thou hast delivered me formerly, and therefore I commit myself to thee for the future. O Lord, &c. - Who hast shewed thyself so, in making good thy promise.
6 Vanities - Idols, which are often called Vanities, as Deut 32:21. Or, curious arts, and all sorts of divinations.
7 Known - Loved me, and cared for me.
8 Room - Made way for me to escape, when I was encompassed by them.
9 Grief - With continual weeping.
10 Iniquity - For the punishment of mine iniquity. Consumed - The juice and marrow of them bring almost dried up with grief.
11 A fear - They were afraid to give me any countenance or assistance. Fled - To prevent their own danger and ruin.
12 A broken vessel - Which is irreparable, and useless, and therefore despised by all.
13 Fear - Just cause of fear.
15 My times - All the affairs and events of my life, are wholly in thy power.
19 Laid up - His favour is not always manifested, to them, but it is laid up for them in his treasure, whence it shall be drawn forth when they need it, and he sees it fit. Before - Publickly and in the view of the world.
20 The secret - Or, as in the secret of thy presence: either,
  1. As if they were in thy presence chamber, where thine own eye and hand girdeth them, from all the assaults of their enemies; called his secret, partly, because the greatest part of the world are strangers to God and his presence: and partly, because it is a safe and secure place, such as secret and unknown places are. Or,
  2. As if they were in the secret of God's tabernacle, as it is called, Psal 27:5, the place of God's special presence, where none might enter save the high - priest. With thy secret favour and providence, which saves them by hidden and unknown methods.
From - From their vain - glorious boasting and threats, and from their bad and insolent attempts. Pavilion - Or, tabernacle. Strife - From contentious and slandering tongues.
21 City - In Keilah: where God wonderfully preserved me.
22 Haste - When my passion took away my consideration, and weakened my faith. Cut off - Cast out of thy sight, and out of the care of thy gracious providence.

Chapter XXXII

The happiness of them whose sins are forgiven, ver. 1, 2. The necessity of confessing our sins, and of prayer, ver. 3 - 6. God's promise to them that trust in him, ver. 7 - 10. An exhortation to rejoice in God, ver. 11. A psalm of David, Maschil.

Title of the psalm. Maschil - Or, an instructor. This psalm is fitly so called, because it was composed for the information of the church, in that most important doctrine, the way to true blessedness.

2 Imputeth - Whom God doth not charge with the guilt of his sins, but graciously pardons and accepts him in Christ. No guile - Who freely confesses all his sins, and turns from sin to God with all his heart.
3 Silence - From a full and open confession of my sins. Old - My spirit failed, and the strength of my body decayed. Roaring - Because of the continual horrors of my conscience, and sense of God's wrath.
4 Hand - Thy afflicting hand. My moisture - Was dried up.
5 The iniquity - The guilt of my sin.
6 For this - Upon the encouragement of my example. Found - In an acceptable and seasonable time, while God continues to offer grace and mercy. Waters - In the time of great calamities. Not come - So as to overwhelm him.
8 I will - This and the next verse seems to be the words of God, whom David brings in as returning this answer to his prayers. Mine eye - So Christ did St. Peter, when he turned and looked upon him.
9 Will not - Unless they be forced to it by a bit or bridle. And so all the ancient translators understand it.
10 Sorrows - This is an argument to enforce the foregoing admonition.

Chapter XXXIII

The Psalmist exhorts the righteous to praise God, for his truth, justice and goodness, ver. 1 - 5, For creating the world, ver. 6 - 9. For his providence in governing it, ver. 10 - 17. For his peculiar favour to his people, encouraging them to trust in him, ver. 18 - 22.

2 Harp, &c. - These instruments were used in the publick worship of God in the tabernacle.
3 A new song - Renewed or continued from day to day.
4 The word - All God's counsels and commands are wise, and just, and good. His works - All his works of providence agree with his word, and are the accomplishment of his promises or threatenings.
5 Goodness - He not only doth no man wrong, but he is kind and merciful to all men.
6 The word - God made this admirable structure of the heavens, and all its glorious stars; not with great pains and time, but with one single word. Host - The angels: or the stars.
7 Store - houses - Either in the clouds, or in the bowels of the earth.
10 The Lord - Thus he passes from the work of creation, to the works of providence, and from the instances of his power, in senseless and irrational creatures, to his power in over - ruling the thoughts and wills, and actions of men, whether single or united.
11 The Counsel - All his purposes and designs are always successful.
13 All men - Although he hath a relation to Israel, yet he hath a general care over all mankind, all whose hearts and ways he observes.
15 Fashioneth - Having said that God sees and observes all men, he now adds, that he rules and governs them; yea, even the hearts which are most unmanageable, he disposes and inclines according to the counsel of his will. Alike - Or, equally, one as well as another: whether they be Jews or Gentiles, princes or peasants; all are alike subject to his jurisdiction. Their works - Both outward and inward, all the workings of their minds and actions, and all their endeavours and actions.
16 No king - He instances in these, as the most uncontrollable persons in the world, and most confident of themselves. By which he strongly proves his general proposition, of God's powerful providence over all men. By an host - But only by God's providence, who disposes of victory and success, as he pleases, and that frequently to the weakest side.
17 An horse - Though he be strong and fit for battle, or for flight, if need requires. And so this is put for all warlike provisions. Vain things - Heb. a lie; because it promises that help and safety which it cannot give.
18 The eye - Whosoever therefore would have safety, must expect it only from the watchful eye, and almighty hand of God. That fear - These are the chief objects of his care and favour. Hope - That place their hope and trust, and happiness, not in any creature, but only in God, and in his mercy and blessings.

Chapter XXXIV

David praises God for his goodness to himself and others, ver. 1 - 7. Encourages the righteous to trust in him, ver. 8 - 10. Exhorts them to fear God and depart from evil, ver. 11 - 14. God's favour to the righteous and displeasure at the wicked, ver. 15 - 22 A psalm of David, when he changed his behaviour before Abimelech: who drove him away, and he departed.

Title of the psalm. When - A psalm made upon that occasion, though not at that time, when he counterfeited madness. Wherein whether he sinned or not, is matter of dispute; but this is undoubted, that his deliverance deserved this solemn acknowledgment. Abimelech - Called Achish, 1Sam 21:10. But Abimelech seems to have been the common name of the kings of the Philistines, Gen 20:2 26:1, as Pharaoh was of the Egyptians.

2 Shall boast - Shall glory in this, that I have so powerful and so gracious a master. The humble - The righteous.
3 Together - Not in place, for David was now banished from the place of God's publick worship, but in affection: let our souls meet, and let our praises meet in the ears of the all - hearing God.
5 Lightened - Comforted and encouraged. Ashamed - They were not disappointed of their hope.
6 This man - David.
7 The angel - The angels, the singular number being put for the plural.
8 O taste - Make trial, of it by your own experience of it. Good - Merciful and gracious.
9 Fear - Reverence, serve, and trust him: for fear is commonly put for all the parts of God's worship.
12 Life - A long and happy life, begun in this world and continued for ever in the next. Good - In which he may enjoy good, prosperity or happiness.
13 Evil - From all manner of evil speaking, from all injurious, false and deceitful speeches.
14 Depart - From all sin. Do good - Be ready to perform all good offices to all men. Seek - Study by all means possible to live peaceable with all men. Pursue it - Do not only embrace it gladly when it is offered, but follow hard after it, when it seems to flee away from thee.
16 The face - His anger, which discovers itself in the face.
18 Nigh - Ready to hear and succour them. To - Those whose spirits are truly humbled under the hand of God, and the sense of their sins, whose hearts are subdued, and made obedient to God's will and submissive to his providence.
20 Bones - All the parts and members of their bodies.

Chapter XXXV

David prays for deliverance from his enemies, and prophecies their destruction, ver. 1 - 10, Describes their wickedness, ver. 11 - 21. Foretells their confusion, the joy of the righteous, and his own thanksgiving, ver. 22 - 28. A psalm of David.

3 Say - By thy spirit assuring me of it: and by thy providence effecting it.
6 Their way - By which they flee, being chased.
7 For - Out of mere malice.
10 My bones - My whole body, as well as my soul.
13 Returned - Although my fastings and prayers did them no good.
15 Gathered - They were so full of joy, that they could not contain it in their own breasts, but sought to communicate it to others. Abjects - Or, vile persons, either for the meanness of their condition, or for their wickedness. Knew not - While I had no suspicion of them. Tear me - My good name with calumnies, and reproaches and curses.
16 Mockers - They made themselves buffoons and jesters, and accustomed themselves to mock and deride David, that thereby they might gain admittance to the tables of great men, which was all they sought for.
17 Look on - Without affording me pity or help. Darling - My soul, Heb. my only one; which is now left alone and forsaken by my friends, and hath none to trust in but God.
18 I will - When I shall be restored to the liberty of the publick assemblies.
20 For - They breathe out nothing but threatenings and war; they use not open violence but subtile artifices, against me and my followers, who desire nothing more than to live quietly and peaceably.
21 Wide - To pour forth whole floods of scoffs and slanders. ha - An expression of joy and triumph. Our eye - What we have long desired and hoped for.
22 This - Thou also hast seen, all their plots and threats, and all my distresses and calamities. Keep not - Be not deaf, to my prayers. The same word signifies, both to be silent, and to be deaf.
23 Awake - To plead my cause against mine adversaries.

Chapter XXXVI

The grievous state of the wicked, ver. 1 - 4. The goodness of God, ver. 5 - 9. David prays, in confidence of deliverance, ver. 10 - 12. To the chief musician, a psalm of David, the servant of the Lord.

1 No fear - When I consider the manifold transgressions of ungodly men, I conclude within myself, that they have cast off all fear of the Divine majesty.
2 Flattereth - He deceiveth himself with vain persuasions, that God does not mind his sins, or will not punish them. Found - Punish, as the same phrase is used, Numb 32:23.
3 Left off - Once he had some degrees of wisdom, but now he is become an open apostate.
4 Deviseth - Freely, from his own inclination, when none are present to provoke him to it.
5 Thy mercy - Mine enemies are cruel and perfidious, but thou art infinite in mercy, and faithfulness. Heavens - Is infinite and incomprehensible. Faithfulness - The truth both of thy threatenings against thine enemies, and of thy promises made to good men. The clouds - Is far above our reach, greater and higher than we can apprehend.
6 Mountains - Stedfast and unmoveable: eminent and conspicuous to all men. Judgments - The executions of thy counsels. Deep - Unsearchable, as the ocean. Man - The worst of men; yea, the brute - beasts have experience of thy care and kindness.
7 Loving - kindness - Though all thine attributes be excellent, yet, above all, thy mercy is most excellent, or precious and amiable.
8 Satisfied - Who trust in thee, as he now said. Fatness - With those delightful provisions, which thou hast prepared for them in heaven. The river - Which denotes both their plenty, and their perpetuity.
9 Life - It is in God as in a fountain, and from him is derived to us. But - Of that glorious and blessed, and endless life, which alone is worthy of the name. Light - In the light of thy glorious presence, which shall be fully manifested, when we see thee face to face. Light - Joy and comfort, and happiness: the word light is elegantly repeated in another signification; in the former clause it is light discovering, in this light, discovered or enjoyed.
11 The foot - Of my proud and insolent enemies. Come - So as to overthrow me.
12 There - He seems as it were to point at the place, as if it were already done.

Chapter XXXVII

David exhorts to patience and confidence in God, ver. 1 - 8. Shews the different state of the righteous and the wicked, ver. 9 - 40. A psalm of David.

1 Fret not - Because they prosper in their wicked enterprizes.
5 Commit - All thy cares and business, and necessities, commend to God by fervent prayer.
6 Judgment - It shall be as visible to men, as the light of the sun, at noon - day.
7 Rest - Do not repine at his dealings, but quietly submit to his will, and wait for his help.
8 Fret not - Either against the sinner for his success; or against God. Do evil - If grief arise in thee, take care that it do not transport thee to sin.
9 The earth - This for the most part was literally fulfilled in that state of the church.
10 Not be - He shall be dead and gone. Diligently - Industriously seeking him. His place - His place and estate, and glory.
11 But - Those who patiently bear God's afflicting hand, and meekly pass by injuries. Peace - Partly of outward peace and prosperity, which God in his due time will give them: but principally of inward peace, in the sense of God's favour and the assurance of endless happiness.
13 His day - The day appointed by God for his punishment or destruction.
18 Knoweth - Observes with care and affection. The days - All things which befal them, their dangers and fears, and suffering. For ever - To them and their seed for ever: and when they die their inheritance is not lost, but exchanged for one infinitely better.
20 Fat - Which in an instant melts before the fire.
23 Established - So that he shall not fall into mischief.
24 Fall - Into trouble.
25 Forsaken - These temporal promises, were more express to the Jews in the times of the Old Testament, than to Christians.
26 Blessed - Not only with spiritual, but with temporal blessings.
27 Dwell - Thou shalt dwell in the land, and afterwards in heaven.
30 The mouth - Having shewed, God's singular care over the righteous, he proceeds to give a character of them. Judgment - Of God's judgment, word or law.
31 Heart - His thoughts, meditations and affections are fixed upon it. Slide - Slide, or swerve, from the rule, from God's law.
35 Bay - tree - Which is continually green and flourishing even in winter.
36 Yet - He was gone in an instant. But - There was no monument or remainder of him left.
37 Peace - Though he may meet with troubles in his way, yet all shall end well.
38 Together - All without exception.


David complains of God's displeasure and his own sin, ver. 1 - 5. Of his bodily sickness, ver. 6 - 10. Of the unkindness of his friends and the injuries of his enemies, ver. 11 - 20. Prays to God for help, ver. 21, 22. A psalm of David to bring to remembrance.

Title of the psalm. To bring, &c. - Either, to God, that by this humble and mournful prayer, he might prevail with God, to remember and pity him; or, to himself, that by reviewing this psalm afterwards, he might call to mind his former danger and misery, and God's wonderful mercy in delivering him; and that others also might remember what God had done to him.

2 Arrows - Thy judgments outward and inward.
3 Sin - Which hath provoked thee to deal thus severely with me.
4 Iniquities - Or, the punishment of mine iniquities, as this word is frequently used. Are gone - Like deep waters wherewith I am overwhelmed.
5 Foolishness - Sin.
7 Disease - The disease might be some burning fever, breaking forth outwardly in carbuncles, or boils. It is true, this and the other expressions may be taken figuratively, but we should not forsake the literal sense of the words without necessity.
12 Deceit - They design mischief, but cover it with fair pretences.
13 Dumb - Was silent, to testify his humiliation for his sins, and his acceptation of the punishment which he had brought upon himself.
16 When - When I fall into any misery, they triumph in the accomplishment of their desires.
17 To halt - just falling into destruction. Before me - I am constantly sensible of thy just hand, and of my sins the cause of it.
18 Declare - To thee.
19 Strong - Are thriving and flourishing.

Chapter XXXIX

David relates the struggle which had been in his breast, ver. 1 - 3. He meditates on man's frailty and mortality, ver. 4 - 6. He prays for pardon, deliverance from trouble, and respite from death, ver. 7 - 13. To the chief musician, even to Jeduthun, A psalm of David.

Title of the psalm. Jeduthun - One of the three chief masters of the sacred musick, 1Chron 16:41, 42.

1 I said - I fully resolved. Take heed - To order all my actions right, and particularly to govern my tongue.
2 Dumb - Two words put together, expressing the same thing, to aggravate or increase it. I held - I forbear to speak, what I justly might, lest I should break forth into some indecent expressions. Stirred - My silence did not assuage my grief, but increase it.
4 My end - Make me sensible of the shortness and uncertainly of life, and the near approach of death.
5 Before thee - If compared with thee, and with thy everlasting duration.
6 Vain shew - Heb. in a shadow or image; in an imaginary rather than a real life: in the pursuit of vain imaginations, in which there is nothing solid or satisfactory: man in and his life, and all his happiness in this world, are rather appearances and dreams, than truths and realities. Disquieted - Heb. They make a noise, bustling, or tumult, with unwearied industry seeking for riches, and troubling and vexing both themselves and others in the pursuit of them.
7 Mow Lord - Seeing this life and all its enjoyments are so vain and short. My hope - I will seek for happiness no where but in God.
10 Remove - Take off the judgment which thou hast inflicted upon me. I am - Help me before I am utterly lost.
11 Beauty - His comeliness and all his excellencies or felicities. Moth - As a moth consumeth a garment, to which God compares himself and his judgments, secretly and insensibly consuming a people, Isa 51:8.
12 A stranger - I am only in my journey or passage to my real home, which is in the other world.
13 No more - Among the living, or in this world.

Chapter XL

This psalm is a celebration of God's great goodness to him, and all his people. In it there are some passages which cannot belong to Christ, and some which do not properly belong to David, or to that time and state of the church, but only to Christ, and to the times of the New Testament. He praises God for delivering him out of deep distress, ver. 1 - 5. Thence takes occasion to speak of the work of our redemption by Christ, ver. 6 - 10. Prays for mercy and grace both for himself and for his brethren, ver. 11 - 17. To the chief musician, A psalm of David.

2 Pit - Desperate dangers and calamities. Rock - A place of strength and safety. Established - Kept me from falling into mischief.
3 And fear - Shall stand in awe of that God, whom they see to have so great power, either to save or to destroy.
4 The proud - Or, the mighty, the great and proud potentates of the world, to whom most men are apt to look and trust. Turn - From God, in whom alone they ought to trust. To lies - To lying vanities, such as worldly power and wisdom, and riches, and all other earthly things, or persons, in which men are prone to trust: which are called lies, because they promise more than they perform.
5 Many - This verse seems to be interposed as a wall of partition, between that which David speaks in his own person, and that which he speaks in the person of the Messiah, in the following verses.
6 Sacrifice - These and the following words, may in an improper sense belong to the time of David; when God might be said, not to desire or require legal sacrifices comparatively. Thou didst desire obedience rather than sacrifices, but in a proper sense, they belong only to the person and times of the Messiah, and so the sense is, God did not desire or require them, for the satisfaction of his own justice, and the expiation of mens sins, which could not possibly be done by the blood of bulls or goats, but only by the blood of Christ, which was typified by them, and which Christ came into the world to shed, in pursuance of his father's will, as it here follows, ver.7,8. So here is a prediction concerning the cessation of the legal sacrifice, and the substitution of a better instead of them. Opened - Heb. bored. I have devoted myself to thy perpetual service, and thou hast accepted of me as such, and signified so much by the boring of mine ears, according to the law and custom in that case, Exod 21:5,6. The seventy Jewish interpreters, whom the apostle follows, Heb 10:5, translate these words, a body hast thou prepared me.
7 Them - These words literally and truly belong to Christ, and the sense is this; seeing thou requirest a better sacrifice than those of the law, lo, I offer myself to come, and I will in due time come, into the world, as this phrase is explained in divers places of scripture, and particularly Heb 10:5, where this place is expressly applied to Christ. Volume - These two words, volume and book are used of any writing, and both express the same thing. Now this volume of the book is the law of Moses, which is commonly and emphatically called the book, and was made up in the form of a roll or volume, as the Hebrew books generally were. And so this place manifestly points to Christ, concerning whom much is said in the books of Moses.
8 I delight - This is eminently true, of Christ, and is here observed as an act of heroic obedience, that he not only resolved to do, but delighted in doing the will of God, or what God had commanded him, which was to die, and that a most shameful, and painful, and cursed death. My heart - I do not only understand it, but receive it with heartiest love, delighting both to meditate of it, and to yield obedience to it.
9 Righteousness - Thy faithfulness. Great congregation - In the most public and solemn assemblies: not only to the Jews, but also to all nations; to whom Christ preached by his apostles, as is observed Eph 2:17. Not refrained - From preaching it, even to the face of mine enemies.
11 With - hold not - David, having been transported by the spirit of God to the commemoration of the great mystery of the Messiah, he now seems to be led back by the same spirit, to the consideration of his own case.
12 Taken hold - Mens sins are figuratively said to take hold of them, as an officer takes hold of a man whom he arrests. To look - Unto God or men, with any comfort: I am ashamed and confounded.
15 Shame - Their sinful and shameful actions.

Chapter XLI

David on a sick bed lays hold on God's promise and prays for mercy, ver. 1 - 4. Complains of the pride and malice of his enemies, ver. 5 - 9. Flees to God for succour, and praises him, ver. 10, 13. To the chief musician, A psalm of David.

3 Make his bed - Give him ease and comfort, which sick men receive by the help of those who turn and stir up their bed, to make it soft and easy for them.
4 Heal - The soul is said to be healed, when it is pardoned and purged. For - For I acknowledge that I have sinned.
6 His heart - Even when he is with me, and pretends hearty affection, his heart is devising mischief against me.
9 Yea - These words were literally fulfilled in David, and yet the Holy Ghost looked farther in them, even to Christ and Judas, in whom they received a fuller accomplishment. Lift up - A phrase implying injury, joined with insolency and contempt; taken from an unruly horse, which kicks at him that owns and feeds him.
10 Requite - Punish them for their wicked practices; which being now a magistrate, he was obliged to do.
11 By this - Because hitherto thou hast supported me, and prolonged my days to the disappointment of their hopes.
12 Settest - Or, hast confirmed me in thy presence, under thine eye and special care: to minister unto thee, as a king over thy people. And in regard of his posterity, the kingdom was established for ever.
13 Amen - Signifies an hearty assent and approbation, and withal an earnest desire of the thing, to which it is annexed. And as the psalms are divided into five books, so each of them is closed with this word; the first here: the second, Psal 72:19, the third, Psal 89:52, the fourth, Psal 106:48, the last in the end of Psal 150:6, the doubling of the word shews the fervency of his spirit, in this work of praising God.

Chapter XLII

The psalmist longs for the public service of God, ver. 1 - 4. Stirs himself up to trust in God, ver. 5 - 9. Reproached by his enemies, still hopes in him, ver. 10, 11. To the chief musician, Maschil, for the sons of Korah.

Title of the psalm. Sons of Korah - Who were an eminent order of singers in the house of God, 1Chron 6:33.

1 Panteth - After the enjoyment of thee in thy sanctuary.
2 Thirsteth - Not after vain useless idols, but after the only true and living God. Appear - In the place of his special presence and publick worship.
4 Remember - My banishment from God's presence, and mine enemies triumphs. In me - I breathe out my sorrows and complaints to God within my own breast. The multitudes - Israelites, who went thither in great numbers. Holy - day - Or that kept the feast, the three solemn festival solemnities, which they kept holy unto the Lord.
5 For - Heb. for the salvations of his face, for those supports, deliverances and comforts which I doubt not I shall enjoy both in his presence and sanctuary, and from his presence, and the light of his countenance.
6 Therefore - Therefore that I may revive my drooping spirits. Remember - I will consider thy infinite mercy and power, and faithfulness. Mizar - From all the parts of the land, to which I shall be driven; whether from the parts beyond Jordan on the east: or mount Hermon, which was in the northern parts.
7 Deep - One affliction comes immediately after another, as if it were called for by the former. A metaphor taken from violent and successive showers of rain; which frequently come down from heaven, as it were at the noise, or call of God's water spouts.
8 Command - Will effectually confer upon me. Loving - kindness - His blessings, the effects of his loving - kindness.
10 As - As a sword, which cutteth the very bones, so painful are their reproaches.

Chapter XLIII

The psalmist appeals to God, ver. 1, 2. Prays to be restored to the public ordinances, and trusts in God, ver. 3 - 5.

1 Nation - So he calls the company of his enemies for their great numbers. Man - Probably Achitophel or Absalom.
3 Send out - That is, actually discover them. Truth - Thy favour, or the light of thy countenance, and the truth of thy promises made to me; or the true - light, the illumination of thy spirit, and the direction of thy gracious providence, whereby I may be led in the right way, to thy holy hill. Hill - Of Zion, the place of God's presence and worship.

Chapter XLIV

The church commemorates past mercies, ver. 1 - 8. Complains of present troubles, ver. 9 - 16. Professes her integrity, ver. 17 - 22. Prays for succour, ver. 23 - 26. To the chief musician for the sons of Korah, Maschil.

4 My king - The whole people speak as one man, being united in one body.
11 Scattered - Those who were not slain are carried into captivity, and dispersed in several places.
16 Avenger - Who executeth both God's and his own vengeance upon me.
17 Yet - Although we cannot excuse ourselves from many other sins, yet through thy grace we have kept ourselves from apostacy and idolatry, notwithstanding all examples and provocations.
18 Turned - From thy worship to idols.
19 Broken us - By inflicting upon us one breach after another, thou hast at last brought us to this pass. The place - A place extremely desolate, such as dragons love, Isa 13:21,22, and therefore full of horror, and danger. Covered us - With deadly horrors and miseries.
22 Yea - Because we are constant in thy worship, which they abhor.
25 Our soul - Our persons. Our belly - We are not only thrown down to the earth, but we lie there like dead carcases.

Chapter XLV

This psalm is an illustrious prophecy of the Messiah, and points at him only, as a bridegroom espousing the church to himself, and as a king ruling in it. And our Saviour probably alludes to this, where he compares the kingdom of heaven to a royal marriage. We have no reason to think, it has any reference to Solomon's marriage with Pharaoh's daughter. It is meant purely of Christ, and no other, and to him it is applied in the New Testament. After the preface, it speaks of the person and victories of the royal bridegroom, ver. 1 - 5. The righteousness of his government, ver. 6, 7. The splendor of his court, ver. 8, 9. Of the royal bride, the church, her consent gained, ver. 10, 11. The nuptials solemnized, ver. 12 - 15. The issue of this marriage, ver. 16, 17. To the chief musician upon Shoshannim, for the sons of Korah, Maschil. A song of loves.

Title of the psalm. Shoshannim - Is supposed to mean, an instrument of six strings. This is a song of loves, of the holy love which is between Christ and his church.

1 Enditing - Heb. boileth, or bubbleth up like water over the fire. This denotes that the workings of his heart, were fervent and vehement, kindled by God's grace, and the inspiration of the Holy Ghost. Made - Have composed. Pen - He was only the pen or instrument in uttering this song; it was the spirit of God, by whose hand this pen was guided.
2 Fairer - Than all other men: which is most true of Christ; but not of Solomon; whom many have excelled, in holiness and righteousness, which is the chief part of the beauty celebrated in this psalm. Grace - God hath plentifully poured into thy mind and tongue the gift of speaking wisely, eloquently, and acceptably. Therefore - And because God hath so eminently qualified thee for rule, therefore he hath blessed thee with an everlasting kingdom.
3 Thy sword - To smite thine enemies. And the sword is here put for all his arms, as it is in many other places.
4 And - Being thus magnificently girt and armed. Ride - March on speedily and successfully against thine enemies. The word - That is, the gospel: which is called the word of truth, Eph 1:13, and may no less truly be called the word of meekness, because it is not delivered with terror, as the law was at Sinai, but meekly and sweetly; and the word of righteousness, because it brings in everlasting righteousness, and strongly excites all men to the practice of righteousness and holiness. And so the gospel is compared, to an horse or chariot, upon which Christ is said to ride, when the gospel is preached, and carried about from place to place. Teach thee - Thou shalt do exploits, which shall be terrible to thine enemies. But the phrase, thy right hand shall teach thee, is not to be taken properly; the meaning is, his hand should shew him, discover and work before him.
5 Arrows - The same with the sword, and this is no other than his word, which is sharp and powerful, and pierceth the hearts of men. The kings - Of thine enemies. Fall - Prostrate at thy feet, after the manner of conquered persons.
6 O God - It is evident, that the speech is still continued to the same person whom he calls king, ver.1,11, and here God, to assure us that he doth not speak of Solomon, but a far greater king, who is not only a man, but the mighty God, Isa 9:6. A right scepter - Thou rulest with exact righteousness and equity.
7 Therefore - Therefore God hath exalted thee far above all men and angels, to a state of joy and endless glory at his right hand; which is fitly compared by the oil of gladness. Thy God - According to thy human nature, John 20:17, though in respect of thy Divine nature, thou art his fellow, Zech 13:7, and his equal, Phil 2:6, and one with him, John 10:30. Oil - So called, because it was a token of gladness, and used in feasts, and other solemn occasions of rejoicing. Fellows - Above all them who partake with thee in this unction: above all that ever were anointed for priests or prophets, or kings.
8 Myrrh - Wherewith they used to perfume their garments: this may denote those glorious and sweet smelling virtues, which, as they were treasured up in Christ's heart, so did they manifest themselves outwardly, and give forth a grateful smell, in the whole course of his life and actions. Palaces - The king is here supposed to reside in his ivory palaces, and his garments are so fragrant, that they not only perfume the whole palace in which he is; but the sweet favour is perceived by those that pass by them, all which is poetically said, and with allusion to Solomon's glorious garments and palaces. The heavenly mansions, may not unfitly be called ivory palaces, as elsewhere in the same figurative manner they are said to be adorned with gold and precious stones, from which mansions Christ came into the world, into which Christ went, and where he settled his abode after he went out of the world, and from whence he poured forth all the fragrant gifts and graces of his spirit, although there is no necessity to strain every particular circumstance in such poetical descriptions; for some expressions may be used, only as ornaments, as they are in parables; and it may suffice to know, that the excellencies of the king Christ are described by things which earthly potentates place their glory. Whereby - By the sweet smell of thy garments out of those ivory palaces, or the effusion of the gifts and graces of thy spirit from heaven; which as it is a great blessing to those who receive them, so doth it rejoice the heart of Christ, both as it is a demonstration of his own power and glory, and as it is the instrument of bringing souls to God. Made thee - Thou art made glad.
9 Among - Among them that attend upon thy spouse, as the manner was in nuptial solemnities. As the queen is the church in general, and so these honourable women are particular believers, who are daily added to the church, Acts 2:47. And although the church is made up of particular believers, yet she is distinguished from them, for the decency of the parable. And these believers may be said to be Kings daughters, because among others, many persons of royal race embraced the faith, and because they are in a spiritual sense, Kings unto God, Rev 1:6. Right hand - The most honourable place. Ophir - Clothed in garments made of the choicest gold. By which he designs the graces wherewith the church is accomplished.
10 Hearken - The prophet having hitherto spoken to the bridegroom, now addresseth his speech to the bride. O daughter - He speaks like an elder person, and as her spiritual father and counsellor. Incline - He uses several words, signifying the same thing, to shew his vehement desire of her good. Forget - Comparatively.
11 So - So thou shalt be acceptable to thy husband; which will abundantly recompence thee, for the loss of thy father's house. Thy Lord - As he is thy husband, and also as he is thy king, and God.
12 The daughter - The people of Tyre; as the daughter of Zion or Jerusalem, are put for their inhabitants: he mentions the Tyrians; because they among others, and before many others, were to be converted to Christ, but they are here put for all the Gentiles, whom that city fitly represents, as being the mart of the nations. A gift - To testify their homage. The rich - Of other nations.
13 Daughter - The spouse; so called, because she was the daughter of one king, and the wife of another. Within - In her soul. Her cloathing - She is outwardly adorned with virtuous and honourable actions.
14 Brought - He alludes to the custom of conducting the bride to the bride - groom's house. Companions - Her bride - maidens attending upon her.
16 Instead - Having directed his speech to the bride, he now returns to the bridegroom, as may be gathered both from the Hebrew words, which are of the masculine gender; and from the next verse, which unquestionably belongs unto him, and therefore this cannot be understood of Solomon, and his marriage with Pharaoh's daughter, because he had no children by her, and but very few by all his wives and concubines; and his children were so far from being made Princes in all the earth, that they enjoyed but a small part of their father's dominions, but this was fully accomplished in Christ: who instead of his fathers of the Jewish nation, had a numerous posterity of Christians of all the nations of the earth, which here and elsewhere are called princes and kings, because of their great power with God and with men.
17 Remembered - As he began the psalm with the celebration of the king's praises, so now he ends with it, and adds this important circumstance, that this nuptial song should not only serve for the present solemnity, but should be remembered and sung in all successive generations.

Chapter XLVI

The safety of the church under God's care, ver. 1 - 7. An exhortation to behold his works, and to trust in him, ver. 8 - 11. To the chief musician for the sons of Korah, A song upon Alamoth.

2 Though - Though there should be nothing but confusion, and desolations round about us: which are often expressed by such metaphors.
4 A river - This may design the gracious presence, and blessing of the Lord, which is frequently described under the name of waters. Make glad - Shall not barely preserve it from danger, but give great occasion for rejoicing and thanksgiving. The city - Jerusalem, the place where God's holy tabernacle is settled.
7 Raged - Against God, and against his people. Uttered - He spake to them in his wrath. The earth - The inhabitants of the earth were consumed.
8 Desolations - Among those who were vexatious to God's people.
9 To cease - He hath settled as in a firm and well - grounded peace. The land - Of Israel: from one end of it to the other. The bow - The bows and spears, and chariots of their enemies.
11 Be still - Stir no more against my people. God - The only true and almighty God; your gods are but dumb and impotent idols. Exalted - I will make myself glorious by my great and wonderful works.

Chapter XLVII

This psalm seems to have been composed upon the occasion of carrying the ark from the house of Obed - edom into the city of Zion, 2Sam 6:12,17. But as Zion was a type of the church, and the ark a type of Christ, so it has a farther reference, even to Christ's ascension into heaven, and to the spreading of his kingdom in all parts of the world. It contains an exhortation to rejoice in God, ver. 1 - 4. A prophecy of Christ's ascension, and of the calling of the Gentiles, ver. 5 - 9. To the chief musician, A psalm for the sons of Korah.

3 Subdue - He speaks this in the name of the whole church, to which all particular believers were to submit themselves in the Lord.
4 Chuse - He will appoint and bestow upon us. Inheritance - The presence and worship, and blessing of God. This God had chosen for the Israelites and resolved to chuse or set apart for the Gentiles. Of Jacob - Of the people of Jacob or Israel, who are frequently called Jacob, for these did actually enjoy the presence of God in his sanctuary. Loved - Not for any peculiar worth in them, but for his free love to them, as he declareth, Deut 7:7,8.
5 God - This is meant literally of the ark: but mystically of Christ's ascension into heaven, as may be gathered by comparing this with Eph 4:8, where the like words uttered concerning the ark upon the same occasion, Psal 68:18, are directly applied to Christ's ascension.
7 The king - Not only ours, but of all the nations of the world. Sing - Not formally and carelessly, but seriously, considering the greatness of this king whom you praise, and what abundant cause you have to praise him.
8 The throne - Heaven is often called God's throne, whence God is said to behold and to rule all nations; of which general dominion of God, he here speaks. And Christ sits at his father's right - hand, for that purpose.
9 The princes - The Gentiles, who were divided in their principles, and interests, and religions, are now united and gathered together to Christ, laying their scepters at his feet, and jointly owning his worship and service. And altho' he mentions their conversion only, yet the conversion of their people might reasonably be supposed. Of the God - He doth not say the people of Abraham, lest this should be appropriated to the Israelites; but the people of the God of Abraham who worship the God of Abraham, whether they be Jews or Gentiles. The Shields - The princes or rulers, who are called shields, Hosea 4:18, because by their office they are the common prosecutors of all their people. These are the Lord's, at his disposal, or subject to his dominion, both as to their hearts and kingdoms. Exalted - By this means God shall be greatly glorified.

Chapter XLVIII

The glory and excellency of the church, ver. 1 - 3. Which God preserves from her enemies, ver. 4 - 8. God is praised for this, ver. 9, 10. Who effectually provides for its safety, ver. 11 - 14 A song and psalm for the sons of Korah.

1 The city - In Jerusalem. Mountain - In his holy mountain.
2 The joy - This is spoken prophetically, because the joyful doctrine of the gospel was to go from thence to all nations. The city - Of God, who justly calls himself a great king.
3 Known - By long experience. Palaces - Possibly he may point at the king's palace and the temple, which was the palace of the king of heaven; which two palaces God did in a singular manner protect, and by protecting them, protected the whole city and people.
4 The kings - Either those kings confederate against Jehoshaphat, 2Chron 20:1, or the Assyrian princes; whom they vain - gloriously called kings, Isa 10:8. Passed - In their march towards Jerusalem.
5 Saw it - They did only look upon it, but not come into it, nor shoot an arrow there - nor cast a bank against it, 2Kings 19:32. Marvelled - At the wonderful works wrought by God.
6 Fear - At the tidings of Tirhakah's coming against them, 2Kings 19:9, and at that terrible slaughter of their army, ver. 35.
7 Breakest - Thou didst no less violently and suddenly destroy these raging enemies of Jerusalem, than sometimes thou destroyest the ships at sea with a fierce and vehement wind, such as the eastern winds were in those parts.
8 Heard - The predictions of the prophets have been verified by the events. Establish - God will defend her in all succeeding ages. And so God would have done, if Jerusalem had not forsaken him, and forfeited his protection.
9 Thought - It hath been the matter of our serious and deep meditation, when we have been worshipping in thy temple.
10 So - Thou art acknowledged to be such an one as thou hast affirmed thyself to be in thy Word, God Almighty, or All - sufficient, the Lord of hosts, and a strong tower to all that trust in thee. Righteousness - Of righteous actions; by which thou discoverest thy holiness.
11 Judgments - Upon thine and their enemies.
12 Tell - He bids them mark well her towers, bulwarks, and palaces, with thankfulness to God, when they should find upon enquiry, that not one of them were demolished.
13 Tell it - That they may continue their praises to God for this mercy, by which they hold and enjoy all their blessings.

Chapter XLIX

The preface, ver. 1 - 4. We need not fear the wicked, ver. 5. They cannot by their riches save either their friends or themselves from death, ver. 6 - 10. They cannot secure happiness to themselves, either in this world or the world to come, ver. 11 - 14. He comforts good men against the fear of death, or of the prosperity of the wicked, ver. 15 - 20. To the chief musician, A psalm for the sons of Korah.

4 I will - I will hearken what God by his Spirit speaks to me, and that will I now speak to you. A parable - Which properly is an allegorical speech, but is often taken for an important, and withal, dark doctrine or sentence. Open - I will not smother it in my own breast, but publish it to the world. Dark - So he calls the following discourse, because the thing in question ever hath been thought hard to be understood.
5 In the days - In times of great distress and calamity, when wicked men flourish, and good men are oppressed. Supplanters - This character fitly agrees to David's enemies, who were not only malicious, but deceitful and treacherous.
6 Trust - As that which will secure them from calamities. Having said that good men had no cause of fear, from their present sufferings from ungodly men, now he proceeds to shew, that the ungodly had no reason to be secure because of their riches.
7 Redeem - Neither from the first death, nor from the second. Brother - Whom he would do his utmost to preserve.
8 Soul - Of their life. Precious - Hard to be obtained. Ceaseth - It is never to be accomplished, by any mere man, for himself or for his brother.
10 He seeth - Every man sees that all men die, the wise and the foolish; the evil and the good. To others - He saith not to sons or kindred; but to others, because he is wholly uncertain to whom he shall leave them, to friends, or strangers, or enemies; which he mentions as a great vanity in riches. They neither can save them from death, nor will accompany him in and after death; and after his death will be disposed, he knows not how, nor to whom.
11 Thought - Tho' they are ashamed to express, yet it is their secret hope. Houses - Either their posterity, often called mens houses: or their mansion - houses, as it is explained in the next clause. For ever - To them and theirs in succeeding generations. Call - Fondly dreaming by this means to immortalize their memories.
12 Man - Living in all splendor and glory. Abideth not - All his dreams of perpetuating his name and estate, shall be confuted by experience.
13 Way - Their contrivance to immortalize themselves.
14 Sheep - Which for a season are in sweet pastures, but at the owner's pleasure are led away to the slaughter. Death - The first death shall consume their bodies, and the second death shall devour their souls. The upright - Good men whom they abused at their pleasure. Morning - In the day of the general judgment, and the resurrection of the dead. Beauty - All their glory and felicity. Dwelling - They shall be hurried from their large and stately mansions, into a close and dark grave.
15 God - Tho' no man can find out a ransom to redeem himself, yet God can and will redeem me. The grave - The grave shall not have power to retain me, but shall be forced to give me up into my father's hands. Receive - Into heaven.
16 Afraid - Discouraged.
18 Blessed - He applauded himself as an happy man. Men - And as he flatters himself, so parasites flatter him for their own advantage. When - When thou dost indulge thyself, and advance thy worldly interest.
19 He - Now he returns to the third person: such changes are frequent in this book. Go - To the grave and hell, where he shall meet with his wicked parents, who by their counsel and example, led him into his evil courses. See - Neither the light of this life, to which they shall never return: nor of the next life, to which they shall never be admitted.
20 Understandeth not - Hath not true wisdom. The beasts - Though he hath the outward shape of a man, yet in truth he is a beast, a stupid, and unreasonable creature.

Chapter L

The design of this psalm is to reprove the common miscarriages of many professors of religion, who satisfied their own consciences, and fancied that they pleased God with their external and ceremonial performances, notwithstanding their neglect of piety, justice, and charity: and to instruct men concerning the nature of the true and acceptable worship of God. The glorious appearance of the great judge, ver. 1 - 6. Instructions given how to worship him, ver. 7 - 15. A reproof of those who pretend to worship him, while they disobey his commands, ver. 16 - 20. Their doom read, and warning given to all, to order their conversation aright, ver. 21 - 23. A psalm of Asaph.

Title of the psalm. Asaph - Who was not only the chief of the sacred singers, but also a prophet, 2Chron 29:30, and a composer of several psalms, 2Chron 29:30.

1 Called - All the inhabitants of the earth, from one end to the other: whom he here summons to be witnesses of his proceedings in this solemn judgment, between him and his people, which is here poetically represented. For here is a tribunal erected, the judge coming to it, the witnesses and delinquents summoned, and at last the sentence given.
2 Zion - The place where he was supposed to reside, and where he would now sit in judgment. The perfection - The most amiable place of the whole world, because, of the presence and worship, and blessing of God. Shined - Hath manifested himself in a glorious manner.
3 Our God - The prophet speaks this in the persons of the worshippers of God. Though he be our God, yet he will come to execute judgment upon us. Cease - Or delay to sit in judgment. Tempestuous - This is a farther description of that terrible majesty, wherewith God would clothe himself when he came to his tribunal.
4 Call - To the inhabitants of them, all angels and men, whom he calls in for witnesses of the equity of his proceedings.
5 Gather - O ye angels, summon and fetch them to my tribunal. Which is poetically spoken, to continue the metaphor, and representation of the judgment. My saints - The Israelites, whom God had chosen and separated them from all the nations of the earth, to be an holy and peculiar people to himself, and they also had solemnly devoted themselves to God; all which aggravated their apostacy. Those - Who have entered into covenant with me, and have ratified that covenant by sacrifice. This seems to be added, to acquaint them with the proper nature, use and end of sacrifices, which were principally appointed to be signs and seals of the covenant made between God and his people; and consequently to convince them of their great mistake in trusting to their outward sacrifices, when they neglected the very life and soul of them, which was the keeping of their covenant with God.
6 Declare - God will convince the people of his righteousness, and of their own wickedness, by thunders and lightnings, and storms, or other dreadful signs wrought by him in the heavens. Himself - In his own person. God will not now reprove them, by his priests or prophets, but in an extraordinary manner from heaven.
7 Hear - Having brought in God, as coming to judgment, he now gives an account of the process and sentence of the judge. Testify - I will declare my charge against thee. Thy God - Not only in general, but in a special manner, by that solemn covenant made at Sinai; whereby I avouched thee to be my peculiar people, and thou didst avouch me to be thy God.
8 I will not - This is not the principal matter of my charge, that thou hast neglected sacrifices which thou shouldst have offered.
9 Bullock - Be not so foolish, as to imagine that thou dost lay any obligations upon me by thy sacrifices.
11 The fowls - Such as are wild and fly up and down upon mountains.
14 Offer - If thou wouldest know what sacrifices I prize, and indispensably require, in the first place, it is that of thankfulness, proportionable to my great and numberless favours; which doth not consist barely in verbal acknowledgments, but proceeds from an heart deeply affected with God's mercies, and is accompanied with such a course of life, as is well - pleasing to God. Vows - Those substantial vows and promises, which were the very soul of their sacrifices.
15 Call - And make conscience of that great duty of fervent prayer, which is an acknowledgment of thy subjection to me, and of thy trust and dependance upon me. Glorify - Thou shalt have occasion to glorify me for thy deliverance.
16 But - With what confidence darest thou make mention of my grace and favour, in giving thee such a covenant and statutes.
21 Kept silence - I did not express my displeasure against thee in such judgments as thou didst deserve. Thoughtest - Thou didst misconstrue my patience and long - suffering, as if it had proceeded from my approbation of thy evil courses. Set in order - I will bring to thy remembrance, and lay upon thy conscience all thy sins.
23 Glorifieth - He and he only gives me the honour that I require, and not he who loads my altar with sacrifices.

Chapter LI

David prays for pardon, ver. 1, 2. Confesses his sins, ver. 3 - 5. Prays for renewing grace, ver. 6 - 14. Promises unfeigned thankfulness, ver. 15 - 17. Prays for the whole church, ver, 18, 19. To the chief musician, A psalm of David, when Nathan the prophet came unto him, after he had gone in to Bathsheba.

4 Thee only - Which is not to be, understood absolutely, because he had sinned against Bathsheba and Uriah, and many others; but comparatively. So the sense is, though I have sinned against my own conscience, and against others; yet nothing is more grievous to me, than that I have sinned against thee. Thy sight - With gross contempt of thee, whom I knew to be a spectator of my most secret actions. Justified - This will be the fruit of my sin, that whatsoever severities thou shalt use towards me, it will be no blemish to thy righteousness, but thy justice will be glorified by all men. Speakest - Heb. in thy words, in all thy threatenings denounced against me. Judgest - When thou dost execute thy sentence upon me.
5 Behold - Nor is this the only sin which I have reason to bewail before thee; for this filthy stream leads me to a corrupt fountain: and upon a review of my heart, I find, that this heinous crime, was the proper fruit of my vile nature, which, ever was, and still is ready to commit ten thousand sins, as occasion offers.
6 Truth - Uprightness of heart; and this may be added; as an aggravation of the sinfulness of original corruption, because it is contrary to the holy nature and will of God, which requires rectitude of heart: and, as an aggravation of his actual sin, that it was committed against that knowledge, which God had wrote in his heart.
7 Hyssop - As lepers, are by thy appointment purified by the use of hyssop and other things, so do thou cleanse me a leprous and polluted creature, by thy grace, and by that blood of Christ, which is signified by those ceremonial usages.
8 Joy - By thy spirit, seal the pardon of my sins on my conscience, which will fill me with joy. Rejoice - That my heart which hath been sorely wounded may be comforted.
10 Create - Work in me an holy frame of heart, whereby my inward filth may be purged away. Right - Heb. firm or constant, that my resolution may be fixed and unmoveable. Spirit - Temper or disposition of soul.
12 The joy - The comfortable sense of thy saving grace, promised and vouchsafed to me, both for my present and everlasting salvation. Free - Or, ingenuous, or liberal, or princely. Which he seems to oppose to his own base and illiberal and disingenuous and servile spirit, which he had discovered in his wicked practices: a spirit, which may free me from the bondage of sin, and enable me chearfully to run the way of God's precepts.
14 Thy righteousness - Thy clemency and goodness.
15 My lips - Which are shut with shame and grief.
16 Not sacrifice - This is not to be understood absolutely, with respect to David's crimes, which were not to be expiated by any sacrifice.
17 A broken spirit - This is of more value than many sacrifices.
18 Good pleasure - Thy free and rich mercy. Build - Perfect the walls and buildings of that city, and especially let the temple be built, notwithstanding my sins.

Chapter LII

The wickedness of Doeg, and his doom, ver. 1 - 5. The righteous will see it and fear, ver. 6, 7. David comforts himself in God, ver. 8, 9. To the chief musician, Maschil, A psalm of David, when Doeg the Edomite came and told Saul, and said unto him, David is come to the house of Ahimelech.

1 Continually - God is continually doing good: thou art continually doing mischief. O mighty - He speaks ironically. O valiant captain! To kill a few weak and unarmed persons.
2 Deviseth - Expresses what thy wicked mind had devised. Deceitfully - Doeg pretended only to vindicate himself from disloyalty, 1Sam 22:8, but he really intended to expose the priests, to the king's fury.
5 Pluck thee - Violently and suddenly as the Hebrew word signifies, from thy house and lands, and all the wages of thy righteousness. Root - Though thou seemest to have taken deep root, yet God shall pluck thee up by the very roots, and destroy thee both root and branch.
6 Fear - Reverence God's just judgment.
8 The house - In God's church, or among his people.
9 Thou hast - Destroyed mine and thine implacable enemies, and established me in the throne, of which I am no less assured, than if it were already done. I will continue in thy way, placing my whole confidence in thy power and goodness, and faithfulness. Before - In the presence of thy saints.

Chapter LIII

David here describes the wickedness of mankind, nearly in the same words as in Psalm 14. To the chief musician upon Mahalath, Maschil, A psalm of David.

Title of the psalm. Mahalath - This also seems to be the name of a musical instrument, or tune.

5 Scattered - Hath not only broken their bones, their strength, and force, but also dispersed them hither and thither, so as there is no hope of a restoration. Thee - Against my people. Thou - Thou oh Jerusalem, which they besiege.

Chapter LIV

David prays for help against his enemies, ver. 1 - 3. Comforts himself with the assurance of deliverance, ver. 4 - 7. To the chief musician on Neginoth, Maschil, A psalm of David, when the Ziphim came and said to Saul, Doth not David hide himself with us.

1 Name - By thy own strength. Judge - Plead my cause.
3 Strangers - The Zephites, whom, though Israelites, he calls strangers in regard of their barbarous and perfidious carriage.
5 Thy truth - Whereby thou art engaged to fulfil thy promises and threatenings.

Chapter LV

David complains to God, ver. 1 - 8. Prays for help against his enemies, ver. 9 - 15. Assures himself of God's protection, ver. 16 - 18. And their destruction, ver. 19 - 23. To the chief musician on Neginoth, Maschil, A psalm of David.

3 Voice - Their clamours and threats, and slanders. Cast - They lay many crimes to my charge.
4 The terrors - Deadly terrors; such as seize upon men in the agonies of death.
8 Tempest - From the force and fury of mine enemies.
9 Destroy - Destroy them by dividing. Tongues - Their speech, as thou didst at Babel, Gen 11:9, their votes, and opinions, and counsels. Which was eminently done among Absalom's followers, 2Sam 17:23. Strife - Injustice and fraud, oppression and contention rule here, instead of that public justice and peace which I established. City - In Jerusalem; which in Absalom's time was a sink of all sins.
10 They - Violence and strife. Go about - Do encompass it, as it were a garrison. Walls - In the outward parts, as also in the very midst of it. So that all parts were horribly corrupted.
11 Streets - The places of buying and selling, and of public commerce.
12 Hated - With a manifest or old hatred.
13 Equal - Not in power, but in reputation, for wisdom, and influence upon my people. Guide - Whose counsel I highly prized, and constantly followed. All which agrees to Achitophel.
15 Them - All such as pretend to religion, and have manifestly apostatized both from the profession and practice of it. The grave - Cut off by a sudden and violent death. Among them - Heb. in their inwards. Wickedness is deeply rooted in their hearts.
17 Evening, &c. - The three stated times of prayer among the Jews.
18 He hath - He speaks of a future deliverance, as a thing done, because of the certainty of it. He hath restored me to my former peace and tranquility. For - For there were more with me than against me; even the holy angels whom God employed to defend and deliver me.
19 Hear - My prayers. Eternity - Who is eternal, and therefore unchangeable, and almighty. Because - They meet with no crosses nor disappointments. Therefore - Their success makes them go on securely, without any regard to God, or dread of his judgments.
20 He - They, the persons last mentioned.
22 Burden - All thy crosses, and cares, and fears, lay them upon the Almighty, by faith and prayer. He directs this speech to his own soul, and to all good men in like circumstances. Suffer - As he doth wicked men. Tho' he may for a season suffer them to be shaken, yet not to be overwhelmed.
23 Them - The wicked. Not live - But shall be cut off by an untimely and violent death. Trust in thee - And in this confidence I will quietly wait for deliverance.

Chapter LVI

David complains of his enemies, and begs for mercy, and help against them, ver. 1 - 7. Expresses his confidence in God, ver. 8 - 13. To the chief musician upon Jonath - elem - rechokim, Michtam of David, when the Philistines took him in Gath.

Title of the psalm. Jonath - elem - rechokim. Which is supposed to be the name of a song.

4 Will praise - I will praise the Lord for his word, for his promises of protection and deliverance, made to his people. Flesh - Infirm and mortal men, called flesh by way of contempt, as Psal 78:39 Isa 31:3.
6 They gather - After they have severally employed their thoughts against me, they meet together to compare them, and to put them in execution. Hide - They lurk secretly, that they may pry into my most private actions. Steps - That they may find some occasion to reproach me. Soul - Or, life, to take it away.
7 Escape - Shall they secure themselves by injurious and malicious practices. The people - These who are mine enemies.
8 Wanderings - How I have been hunted from place to place. Put - Regard and pity them. Are they not - But why do I pray to God to do that which he hath already done?
12 Thy vows - I had made vows to express my gratitude, and resolve to perform them.
13 Walk - That I may serve and glorify thee. The light - ln this life.

Chapter LVII

David here begins with prayer and complaint, tho' not as without hope, ver. 1 - 6. He concludes with joy and praise, ver. 7 - 11. To the chief musician Al - taschith, Michtam of David, when he fled from Saul in the cave.

Title of the psalm. Al - taschith - The word signifies, destroy not. Which some think to be a preface, containing the sum of the psalm. The cave - Either

  1. That of Adullam, 1Sam 22:1, or
  2. That of Engedi, 1Sam 24:1.

3 Send forth - Will discover them, by affording his gracious help in pursuance of his promises.
4 Lions - Fierce and bloody men. I lie - I have my abode. On fire - From hell. Who are mere fire - brands, breathing out wrath and threatenings, and incensing Saul against me.
5 Excited - Glorify thy power, and goodness, and justice, and faithfulness, by my deliverance. Above, &c. - To the highest degree possible.
7 Fixed - In a stedfast belief of thy promises.
8 My glory - My tongue, the instrument of singing. Awake - I will employ all the powers of my soul and body.
9 The people - Among the Israelites, and among the Heathens, as I shall have occasion.

Chapter LVIII

David describes his enemies, ver. 1 - 5. Foretells their ruin, ver. 6 - 9. Which would be to the comfort of good men, and to the glory of God, ver. 10, 11. To the chief musician, Al - taschith, Michtam of David.

1 O congregation - The word seems to point at Saul's judges and counsellors; who met together to consult what they should do against David. Sons of men - So he calls them; to mind them that they were men, and must give an account to God for all their hard speeches.
2 Heart - With free choice and consent. Hands - He intimates that they did great wrong under the pretence of justice, and while they seemed exactly to weigh the true proportion between the actions and the recompenses allotted to them, they turned the scale; and pronounced an unjust sentence. Land - Or, in this land, where God is present, and where you have righteous laws to govern you.
3 Estranged - From God, and from all goodness. Their very natures are corrupt, even from their birth: they are the wicked offspring of sinful parents. Astray - By actual sins, from their childhood, as soon as ever they were capable of the exercise of reason.
4 Poison - Their malicious disposition.
5 Not hearken - As they commonly say of the adders, such really are these men: deaf to all my counsels, to their own consciences, and to God's law. Of the charming or enchanting of serpents, mention is made both in other places of scripture, and in all sorts of authors, ancient and modern, Hebrew and Arabick, and Greek and Latin. And particularly the Arabick writers (to whom these creatures were best known) name some sorts of serpents, among which the adder is one, which they call deaf, not because they are dull of hearing, but, as one of them expressly faith, because they will not be charmed.
6 Their teeth - Their powerful instruments of doing mischief.
7 Melt away - As waters arising from melted snow, which at first run with great force, but are suddenly gone.
8 Melteth - Which is quickly dissolved.
9 Before - Before your pots can be heated. Take them - Violently and irresistibly. Living - Alive, as he did Korah.
10 Rejoice - For the blessed effects of it; the vindication of God's honour, and the deliverance of himself and of all good men. Wash - There shall be so great a slaughter of his enemies that he might, if he pleased, wash his feet in their blood.

Chapter LIX

David prays for deliverance from his enemies, ver. 1 - 7. He foretells their destruction, ver. 8 - 17. To the chief musician, Al - taschith, Michtam of David: when Saul sent and they watched the house to kill him.

4 Run - To and fro, to receive Saul's commands, and to execute them with all speed.
5 The God - A God in covenant with all true Israelites, whom thou hast promised to protect and bless. The heathen - Or, these heathens, who though they are Israelites by birth; yet in their dispositions they are mere Heathens. Be not - For indeed thou canst not according to thy word, be merciful to such incorrigible offenders.
6 Return - Watching for me: which they did at this time all the night long, 1Sam 19:11. A dog - When he is pursuing his prey. Go round - When they did not find him in his own house, they sought for him in other parts of the city.
7 Pour out - Sharp and bitter word's, abundantly and vehemently, as a fountain doth waters, as this word signifies. Swords - Words as keen and mischievous as swords. For who - David doth not hear us, and God either doth not hear, or not regard what we say.
10 Prevent - Thou wilt help me sooner than I expect.
11 My people - Over whom thou hast appointed me to be governor in due time. Forget - Their former danger, and thy glorious mercy in delivering them. Scatter - Let them wander from place to place, that they may carry the tokens of thy justice, and their own shame to all places.
12 Pride - For their proud and insolent speeches against thee. Lying - For their execrations and lying reports, which they have spread concerning me.
13 Not be - In the land of the living any more.

Chapter LX

David remembering God's judgments on the land, prays for help, ver. 1 - 5. Triumphs in confidence of receiving it, ver. 6 - 12. To the chief musician upon Shushan - eduth, Michtam of David, to teach; when he strove with Aram - naharaim, and with Aram - zobah, when Joab returned, and smote of Edom in the valley of salt, twelve thousand.

Title of the psalm. Shushan - eduth - This seems to be the name of an instrument, or tune, then well known, but now unknown and forgotten. To teach - For the special instruction of God's people. Aram - naharaim - The Syrians (so called from Aram, the son of Shem, Gen 10:22,) of the two rivers, or of Mesopotamia, the country between Tygris and Euphrates. Aram - zobah - The Syrians of Zobah, part of Syria so called.

2 Tremble - A poetical expression, signifying great changes among the people.
3 To drink - Thou hast filled us with no less honor, than men intoxicated with strong drink.
4 A banner - Which is a sign and instrument,
  1. Of union. This people who were lately divided, thou hast united under one banner, under my government:
  2. Of battle. Thou hast given us an army, and power to oppose our enemies; which blessing God gave to Israel, for the sake of those few sincere Israelites who were among them.
The truth - Not for any merit of ours, but to shew thy faithfulness in making good thy promises.
5 Beloved - Thy beloved people.
6 Rejoice - Therefore I will turn my prayers into praises, for what God has already done. Divide - Which supposeth possession and dominion. Shechem - A place within Jordan, in mount Ephraim. Succoth - A place without Jordan. He mentions Shechem, and Succoth; for all the land of Canaan, within and without Jordan.
7 Gilead - All the land beyond Jordan, which was possessed by Reuben and Gad, and half of the tribe of Manasseh. Manasseh - The other half of that tribe within Jordan. The strength - A chief part of my strength, either to offend mine enemies, or to defend myself. For this tribe was very numerous, and valiant and rich. Law - giver - The chief seat of my throne and kingdom, and of the inferior throne of judgment, Psal 122:5.
8 Wash - pot - In which I shall wash my feet. I shall bring them into the lowest degree of servitude. Shoe - I will use them like slaves; a proverbial expression. Triumph - It is an ironical expression, signifying that her triumphs were come to an end.
9 Who - None can do it but God. City - The cities; the singular number for the plural. Having beaten his enemies out of the field, he desires God's assistance to take their strong - holds, and so secure himself from farther attempts. Edom - Which was an high and rocky country, Obad 1 - 3, fortified by nature, as well as by art, and therefore not to be subdued without a Divine hand.
10 Hadst cut off - But now hast graciously returned to us.

Chapter LXI

David flees to God, and resolves to trust him, ver. 1 - 4. Praises God from an assurance of future blessings, ver. 5 - 8. To the chief musician upon Neginah, A psalm of David.

2 The end - To which David was driven. Lead me - Convey me into some high and secure fortress.
4 I will - I shall, I doubt not, be restored to the tabernacle, and worship thee there all my days.
5 Heritage - Thou hast granted me this singular mercy, to live in God's land, to enjoy his presence, and to worship in his tabernacle; which is the heritage that all that fear thee, prize and desire above all things.
6 Prolong - The years of my life and reign. Thus he speaks because his kingdom was not like Saul's, but established to him and his heirs; and because Christ, his son and heir, should actually, and in his own person possess the kingdom for ever.
7 Abide - In the throne. Before God - Living and ruling as in God's presence, serving God and worshipping him in his tabernacle. Truth - Thy truth in giving me those mercies which thou hast promised, and thy mercy in giving me such further blessings as I needs.

Chapter LXII

David expresses his confidence in God, ver. 1 - 7. Excites others to trust in him, ver. 8 - 12. To the chief musician, to Jeduthun. A psalm of David.

Title of the psalm. Jeduthun - A famous musician, 1Chron 9:16.

3 Ye - Mine enemies; to whom now he turns his speech. Against - Against me, a man like yourselves, whom common humanity obliges you to pity.
9 Vanity - Vain, and helpless creatures. A lie - They promise much, but generally deceive those who trust in them.
10 Vain - Feeding yourselves with vain hopes of felicity, from those riches which you take from others by violence.
11 Spoken - Frequently, both immediately as at Sinai, and by his holy prophets, from time to time. That - That power is God's prerogative; and consequently all creatures, either against or without him, are poor impotent things.
12 Therefore - God is almighty, therefore he can easily destroy all his enemies: he is also merciful, and therefore will pardon good mens failings. Renderest - And this as he is obliged to do by his holy nature, so is he able to do it, being omnipotent, and willing to do it to the godly (which was the only thing that might be doubted, because of their manifold miscarriages) because he is merciful and gracious.

Chapter LXIII

David's desire and esteem of God, ver. 1 - 4. His satisfaction, and communion with God, ver. 5, 6. His joyful dependence upon God, ver. 7, 8. His holy triumph in him, ver. 9 - 12. A psalm of David, when he was in the wilderness of Judah.

1 Early - Heb. in the morning, Which implies the doing it with diligence and speed. Thirsteth - For the enjoyment of thee in thy house and ordinances. Flesh - The desire of my soul, is so vehement, that my very body feels the effects of it. No water - In a land where I want the refreshing waters of the sanctuary.
2 To see - To enjoy. Power - The powerful and glorious effects of thy gracious presence.
5 Satisfied - When thou shalt fulfil my earnest desire of enjoying thee in the sanctuary.
9 Shall go - Into the grave.
10 Foxes - Their carcases shall become a prey to wild and ravenous creatures.
11 The king - I who am already anointed king. Every one - That sweareth by the name of God, in truth, and judgment, and righteousness. Every sincere servant and worshipper of God. Shall glory - Shall rejoice in my deliverance.

Chapter LXIV

David describes his enemies and prays for deliverance from them, ver. 1 - 6. Foretells their destruction, ver. 7 - 10. To the chief musician, A psalm of David.

6 Iniquities - They study diligently, to find new ways of doing mischief. Deep - Cunning, both to contrive and conceal, and to execute their plots.
8 Flee - Through fear of being involved in their destruction.
10 Glad - For the honour of God, which by this means is vindicated.

Chapter LXV

David praises God for hearing prayer, pardoning sin, satisfying and protecting his people, ver. 1 - 5. For fixing the mountains, calming the sea, preserving the succession of day and night, and making the earth fruitful, ver. 6 - 13. To the chief musician, A psalm and song of David.

4 Approach - To draw near to God in his house and ordinance, by prayer and praise, and other acts of communion with him. Satisfied - With the blessings there conferred upon thy people, the favour and fellowship of God, remission of sins, renovation of heart and life, joy and peace, and well - grounded assurance of eternal life.
5 Righteousness - By virtue of thy faithfulness, and goodness. Wilt thou - Thou wilt graciously answer our prayers. The confidence - Thou art the stay and support of all mankind, by thy powerful and gracious providence.
7 Tumult - No less wild and impetuous.
8 Thy tokens - Terrible thunders and lightnings, and earthquakes, and comets or other strange meteors, or works of God in the air. Morning - The successive courses of the morning and evening; or of the sun and moon which go forth at those times. Thus the whole verse speaks of the natural works of God, the former clause, of such as are extraordinary and terrible, the latter of such as are ordinary and delightful.
9 River - With rain, which he very significantly calls a river for its plenty, and the river of God, of God's immediate providing. Them - The inhabitants of the earth. Provided - Or, disposed, the earth, which without this would be hard and barren.
10 Bringest down - For the rain dissolves the high and hard clods of earth.
12 Wilderness - Which though neglected by men, are furnished with food for beasts.
13 Sing - They are abundantly satisfied with thy goodness, and in their manner sing forth the praise of their benefactor.

Chapter LXVI

The psalmist calls on all people to praise God, for his sovereign power over the whole creation, ver. 1 - 7. For his special favour to his people, ver. 8 - 12. Praises him for his goodness to himself in particular, ver. 13 - 20. To the chief musician, A song or psalm.

1 All lands - Ye people of all nations. He invites the Gentile world, to the contemplation and celebration of God's works.
6 We - Our nation, or our ancestors, in whose loins we then were.
10 Proved us - As it were in a burning furnace; and with a design to purge out our dross.
11 Net - Which our enemies laid for us.
12 To ride - To use us like slaves.
15 I will go - One speaks in the name of all the rest. Incense - With the fat of rams, which is no less pleasing to God than incense.
18 Iniquity - Any sin. In heart - If my heart had been false to God, although I might have forborne outward acts. If I had been guilty of that, by heart was set upon sin, or I desired only that which I resolved in my heart to spend upon my lusts.

Chapter LXVII

A prayer for Israel, ver. 1. For the conversion of the Gentiles, ver. 2 - 5. A prospect of glorious times, ver. 6, 7. To the chief musician on Neginoth, A psalm or song.

2 Thy way - The way of truth, or the true religion; the same which in the next clause is called his saving health, and both together signify the way of salvation; deal so graciously with thy people, that thereby the Gentile - world may at last be allured to join with them.
4 Judge - Rule them. Govern - Heb. lead; gently, as a shepherd doth his sheep; and not rule them with rigour, as other lords had done.
6 Them - When the people of the earth shall be converted to God, God will cause it to yield them abundance of all sorts of fruits. Under which one blessing, all other blessings both temporal and spiritual are comprehended. Our own - He who is Israel's God in a peculiar manner.

Chapter LXVIII

The occasion of this psalm, seems to have been David's translation of the ark to Zion, which was managed with great solemnity and devotion. For the first words are the very same which Moses appointed for such occasions, Numb 10:35, and the following verses pursue the same matter. Thence he falls into a description of some of the glorious works of the God to whom this ark belonged. But because David knew that both himself and the ark were types of Christ, and that the church of Israel were a type of the catholick church, consisting of Jews and Gentiles, and that the legal administrations were types of those of the gospel, he therefore by the spirit of prophecy, looked through the types, to the great mysteries of Christ's resurrection and ascension, and of the special privileges of the Christian church, and of the conversion of the Gentiles, and intermixes passages, which immediately belong to these things, although the words be so ordered, that they carry a manifest allusion to the present actions, and may be applied to them, in a secondary sense.

He first prays against God's enemies, and for his people, ver. 1 - 3. Then praises God, for his greatness and goodness, ver. 4 - 6. For his wonderful works, ver. 7 - 14. For his special presence in his church, ver. 15 - 17. The ascension of Christ, and the salvation of his people, ver. 18 - 20. His victories over his enemies, and favours to his church, ver. 21 - 28. The accession of the Gentiles to the church, ver. 29 - 31. An awful acknowledgment of the glory and grace of God, ver. 32 - 35. To the chief musician, A psalm or song of David.

4 Jah - Is an abbreviation of the name Jehovah, which the Heathens pronounced Jao. Before him - Before the ark where he is present, as David is said to dance before the Lord, upon this occasion, 2Sam 6:14.
5 Habitation - In heaven.
6 Rebellious - Those who rebel against God.
7 Wentest - In the cloudy pillar, as their captain leading them up out of Egypt.
8 Dropped - Poured down great showers, which accompanied those mighty thunders.
9 Weary - Dry and thirsty, and parched with excessive heat, and ready to faint for want of rain, Psal 63:1.
10 Thy congregation - The people of Israel. It - This land for the use of thy people: which God did by designing it for them, and expelling the old inhabitants; by furnishing it with all sorts of provisions, and making it fruitful by his special blessing. Poor - Such thy really were, when God undertook the conduct of them into Canaan.
11 Gave - He put this triumphant song into their mouths.
12 Kings - The kings of Canaan, and other nations who came forth against the Israelites, accompanied with great and numerous armies. The spoil - There was enough, not only for those who took it, but also to be divided to their wives and children, when they came home.
13 Ye - Ye Israelites. Ye are - Tho' you have formerly been exposed to great reproach and misery, yet God hath changed your condition. Gold - Beautiful and glorious, like the feathers of a dove, which according to the variety of its postures, and of the light shining upon it, look like silver and gold.
14 Therein - In Canaan, at the coming of the Israelites. The land was as white as mount Salmon is with the snow.
15 The hill - Zion, the seat of God's ark. High hill - Which is not to be understood of external height, but of its spiritual height, or exaltation, in regard of the glorious privileges of God's presence, and worship.
16 Leap - Why do you triumph and look upon Zion with contempt? He speaks to the hills by an usual figure. Will dwell - This hill, though despicable in your eyes, is precious in God's, and chosen by him for his perpetual residence.
17 Chariots - The armies (whereof chariots were an eminent part in those times) which attend upon God to do his pleasure. Twenty thousand - An innumerable company, a certain number being put for an uncertain. Among them - Here the psalmist seems to be transported by the prophetic spirit, from the narration of those external successes, to the prediction of the Messiah; and of the transcendent privileges and blessings accruing to mankind thereby. As in Sinai - God is no less gloriously, though less terribly present here, than he was in Sinai, when the great God attended with thousands of his angels, solemnly appeared to deliver the law. Yea, here is a greater privilege than Sinai had, The Lord Jehovah descending from heaven into an human body, as appears by his ascending thither again, which the next verse describes.
18 Ascended - This has a manifest reference to Christ, and his ascension into heaven, in whom alone it is literally accomplished, and to whom therefore it is ascribed, Eph 4:8. Although the expressions are borrowed from the ancient custom of princes, who, after some glorious achievements, used to go up into their royal cities in triumphant chariots, being attended by their captive enemies, and afterward to distribute gifts to their soldiers and subjects, and sometimes to do some acts of clemency even to their rebels and enemies. Captivity - Those whom thou hast taken captive; death and sin, and the devil, and all the enemies of Christ, and of his people, whom Christ led in triumph, having spoiled them, and making a shew of them openly, Col 2:15. Received - According to thy manhood thou hast received from God all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, and all those gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit, which are necessary either to the perfection of thy nature, or to the good of thy church and people. Rebellious - Thy most stubborn and rebellious enemies, whether Jews or Gentiles. Might dwell - That he who as man is ascended into the highest heavens, might, as God, come down to them, and dwell with them, not only in and by his ordinances in which he is present, but also by his spirit dwelling in their hearts.
20 Issues - Escapes or deliverances.
21 Hairy - In ancient times many people used to wear long and shaggy hair, that their looks might be more terrible to their enemies.
22 Bring again - I will give my people as great deliverances as I formerly did, when I saved them from Og, king of Bashan. The sea - From the Egyptians at the Red Sea.
23 That, &c. - And as it was at the Red Sea, and at Bashan before, so yet again thine enemies shall be slain in such numbers, that thou mayst wade in their blood, and thy dogs lick it up in the field.
24 They - Men saw and observed it. Goings - The procession of the ark to Zion, the solemnity whereof is particularly described in the following verses. The sanctuary - The tabernacle prepared for it.
26 Fountain - All ye people of Israel.
27 There is - Present in this solemn pomp of carrying the ark to Zion. Little - Called little, because it was exceedingly diminished, and almost extinguished under the Judges, Judg 20:35 21:3 &c. Ruler - The tribe which had lately swayed the scepter, but now submitted to David. Company - The people of that tribe who waited upon them. Zebulun, &c. - He mentions these tribes, because they lived in the remotest parts of the land of Canaan. And so by naming two of the nearest tribes, and two of the farthest, he intimates that the other tribes also came upon this occasion, as is manifest from 2Sam 6:15 - 19.
28 Thy God - Having spoken of Israel, he now directs his speech to them. Commanded - Hath ordained or effectually procured. Thy strength - all that strength and power which thou hast put forth at any time
29 thy temple - The temple which Solomon shall build. Kings - Kings of the Gentiles: which was done in part, in the times of Solomon and Hezekiah, but more fully when the Lord was come into his temple.
30 Rebuke - Chastise those that will not bring presents to thee. The bulls - The fierce and furious adversaries of God, and of his church; the calves, are people or soldiers depending upon them. Delight - That merely out of a love to mischief and spoil, make war upon others, and upon us particularly.
31 Ethiopia - He names these, as the ancient enemies of God, and of his people; but by them he understands all other nations of the like character. Unto God - Begging mercy of him. This prophecy, as also the next verse, evidently belongs to the times of the Messiah.
33 Heavens - The highest heavens; dwelling there in infinite glory, and from thence looking down upon all the inhabitants of the earth, and ruling them by his almighty power. Of old - From the beginning of the world; whereas the ark was only some hundred years old. A voice - His gospel, published by Christ and his apostles, assisted by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven; which might well be called God's voice, and that a mighty voice, because it produced such great and wonderful effects.
34 Ascribe - Acknowledge that he is able to do whatsoever he pleaseth. Excellency - His excellent power and goodness. Is over - Dwells among them. He is indeed the universal Lord, but in a special manner, he is the God of Israel.
35 Terrible - Deservedly to be feared.

Chapter LXIX

David complains of his troubles, and begs help from God, ver. 1 - 21. Foretells the judgments of God upon his persecutors, ver. 22 - 29. Concludes with praise and thanksgiving, ver. 30 - 36. In all this David was a type of Christ, and several passages of this psalm are applied to him in the New Testament. So that, like the 22d psalm, it begins with the humiliation, and ends with the exaltation of Christ. To the chief musician upon Shofhannim, a psalm of David.

1 Waters - Tribulations.
4 I restored - For peace sake.
5 My sins - But O Lord, although I have been innocent to mine enemies, I am guilty of many sins and follies against thee.
6 For my sake - Because of my sad disappointments. For if they see me forsaken, they will be discouraged by this example.
7 For thy sake - For my obedience to thy commands, and zeal for thy glory.
9 Zeal - That fervent love which I have for thy house and service, and glory, and people. Eaten - Exhausted my spirits. Upon me - I have been as deeply affected with thy reproaches, as with mine own. This tho' truly belonging to David, yet was also directed by the spirit of God in him, to represent the disposition and condition of Christ, in whom it was more fully accomplished, to whom therefore it is applied in the New Testament, the first part of it, John 2:17, and the latter, Rom 15:3.
10 Wept - For their impiety. Reproach - They derided me for it.
11 Proverb - A proverb of reproach.
12 That sit - Vain and idle persons, that spend their time in the gates and markets.
13 In the truth - Or, According to thy saving truth, or faithfulness; grant me that salvation, which thou hast graciously promised.
21 Gall - Instead of giving me that comfort which my condition required, they added to my afflictions. Vinegar - These things were metaphorically fulfilled in David, but properly in Christ, the description of whose sufferings was principally intended here by the Holy Ghost.
22 Their table - And this punishment in their table, exactly answers their sin, in giving Christ gall for his meat, ver.21. A snare - Their table or meat, which is set before them, shall become a snare: the occasion of their destruction.
23 Eyes - Not the eyes of their bodies, but of their minds: as they that shut their eyes and will not see, so they shall be judicially blinded. To shake - To take away their strength.
26 For - Which is an act of barbarous cruelty. Talk - Reproaching them, and triumphing in their calamities.
27 Wilt add - Give them up to their own lusts. Not let them - Partake of thy righteousness, or of thy mercy and goodness.
28 Living - Of eternal life.
29 On high - Out of the reach of mine enemies.
31 This - This hearty sacrifice of praise, is more grateful to God, than the most glorious legal sacrifices. Hath horns - That is both tender and mature, as it is when the horns bud forth, and the hoofs grow hard.
32 The humble - Those pious persons who are grieved for their calamities, will heartily rejoice in my deliverance. Live - Or, be revived, which were dejected, and in a manner dead with sorrow.
33 Prisoners - Those who are in prison or affliction for his sake.
35 Sion - His church and people. They - His servants, as is explained in the following verse. There - In the literal Canaan for a long time, in the heavenly Canaan for ever.

Chapter LXX

This psalm is copied almost word for word from the eleventh psalm, and perhaps is for that reason entitled, A psalm to bring remembrance. For it may sometimes be of use to pray over again the prayers we have formerly made to God on like occasions. David here prays, that God would send help to him, shame to his enemies, and joy to his friends. To the chief musician, a psalm of David, to bring to remembrance.

Chapter LXXI

David wrote this psalm in his old age, of which the former part is prayer, ver. 1 - 13. The latter part, joyful praise and thanksgiving, ver. 14 - 24.

7 A wonder - For my many and sore calamities.
15 The numbers - Of thy salvations and mercies vouchsafed to me.
16 Make mention - To support and comfort myself with the remembrance of it. Righteousness - Of thy faithfulness in making good all thy promises.
19 Very high - Most eminent.
20 Bring me - From the grave.

Chapter LXXII

Divers passages of this psalm, do not agree to Solomon, nor to any other king but the Messiah. It must therefore be acknowledged, that, this is a mixt psalm, belonging to Solomon imperfectly, but to Christ, clearly and fully: diverse expressions being so ordered, that the reader might be led by them to the contemplation of Christ, and of his kingdom. Which was the more necessary for the support of God's true Israel, because the spirit of God foresaw Solomon's dreadful apostacy, and the great miscarriages and calamities of his successors, and of the kingdom under their hands, and therefore was pleased to fortify their hearts with that glorious condition, which they should certainly enjoy under the Messiah. It is probable, David dictated this psalm, a little before he died, when he gave orders to proclaim Solomon king. After a short prayer for his successor, he foretells the glories of his reign, ver. 1 - 17. And concludes with praise to the God of Israel, ver. 18 - 20. A psalm for Solomon.

1 Judgments - He saith judgments in the plural number, because though the office of judging and ruling was but one, yet there were divers parts and branches, of it; in all which he begs that Solomon may be directed to do as God would have him to do.
2 Thy afflicted ones - For such are thine in a special manner, thou art their judge and patron.
3 The mountains - Which are so dangerous to passengers, in regard of robbers and wild beasts. Hereby it is implied, that other places should do so too, and that it should be common and universal.
4 Judge - Vindicate them from their oppressors.
5 Thee - Thee, O God, this shall be another blessed fruit of this righteous government, that together with peace, true religion shall be established, and that throughout all generations, which was begun in Solomon's days, but not fully accomplished 'till Christ came.
6 He shall come - Christ did come down from heaven, and brought or sent down from heaven his doctrine, (which is often compared to rain) and the sweet and powerful influences of his spirit.
8 Dominion - From one sea to another, or in all the parts of the habitable world. This was accomplished in Christ, and in him only. The river - Euphrates: which was the eastern border of the kingdom of Canaan, allotted by God, but enjoyed only by David, Solomon, and Christ. Of whose kingdom this may be mentioned, as one of the borders; because the kingdom of Christ is described under the shadow of Solomon's kingdom.
10 The sea - Of remote countries, to which they used to go from Canaan by sea; which are frequently called isles in scripture; the kings that rule by sea or by land.
11 All nations - Which cannot be said of Solomon with any truth or colour, but was unquestionably verified in Christ,
14 Deceit and violence - The two ways whereby the lives of men are usually destroyed. Precious - He will not be prodigal of the lives of his subjects, but like a true father of his people, will tenderly preserve them, and severely avenge their blood upon those who shall shed it.
15 Live - Long and prosperous, as Solomon: yea, eternally as Christ. Gold - This was done to Solomon, 1Kings 10:15, and to Christ, Matt 2:11. But such expressions as these being used of Christ and his kingdom, are commonly understood in a spiritual sense.
16 A handful - This intimates the small beginnings of his kingdom; and therefore does not agree to Solomon, whose kingdom was in a manner as large at the beginning of his reign, as at the end, but it exactly agrees to Christ. The earth - Sown in the earth. Mountains - In the most barren grounds. Shake - It shall yield such abundance of corn, that the ears being thick and high, shall, when they are shaken with the wind, make a noise not unlike that which the tops of the trees of Lebanon, sometimes make. Of the city - The citizens of Jerusalem, which are here put for the subjects of this kingdom.
20 The prayer - This psalm is the last which David composed: for this was wrote but a little before his death.

Chapter LXXIII

It is probable, Asaph was the author of this psalm; for we read of the words of David and the words of Asaph the seer, which were used in praising God in Hezekiah's time, 2Chron 29:30. He begins with laying down a general principle, ver. 1. Confesses his temptation to envy the wicked, ver. 2 - 14. Tells how he gained the victory over it, and advantage by it, ver. 15 - 28. A psalm of Asaph.

1 A clean heart - To all true Israelites, who love God, and serve him in spirit and truth.
2 My feet - My faith in God's providence, was almost overthrown.
4 No bands - They are not dragged to death, by the sentence of the magistrate, which they deserve.
5 As other men - As good men frequently are.
8 And speak - Boasting of their oppressions.
9 Against - Against God, blaspheming his name, and deriding his providence. Walketh - Using all manner of liberty, reproaching all sorts of persons.
10 Turn - To this wicked company. Waters - And partake of the same prosperity with their leaders. God seems to give them a full cup of consolation, as if he would wring out all his blessings upon them.
12 Behold - These seem to be the words of the psalmist, summing up the matter.
13 In vain - Hence I was sometimes tempted, to think that religion was a vain, unprofitable thing. True religion is here described by its two principal parts, the cleansing of the heart, and the hands.
15 Offend - By grieving, discouraging and tempting them to revolt from God.
16 To know - To find out the reason of this providence.
17 Until - 'Till I consulted the word of God. He alludes to the practice of those times, which was, in difficult cases to resort to God's sanctuary, and the oracle therein. Their end - There I learned that their prosperity was short.
19 Terrors - With God's dreadful judgements unexpectedly seizing upon them.
20 They awake - Out of the pleasant dream of this vain life. Despise - Thou shalt make them despicable both to themselves and to all others; raise them to shame, and everlasting contempt. Image - All their felicity and glory, which shall be evidently discerned to be, no real or substantial thing, but a mere image or shadow.
21 Pricked - I was deeply wounded with disquieting thoughts.
22 Nevertheless - Although I gave thee just cause to cast me off, yet thou didst continue thy care and kindness to me. Hast held - That my faith might not fail.
27 Go a whoring - Those who revolt from thee, to work wickedness; which is called whoredom in scripture.

Chapter LXXIV

This psalm, which so particularly describes the destruction of Jerusalem, was probably written by another Asaph, who lived at the time of the captivity. He, in the name of the Jews, complains of the miseries they suffered, ver. 1 - 11. Encourages himself by recollecting the mighty works of God, ver. 12 - 17. Prays for deliverance, ver. 18 - 23. Maschil of Asaph

Title of the psalm. Maschil of Asaph - Not composed by that famous Asaph, who flourished in David's time, but by some of his posterity, who is called by their father's name, as this psalm speaks of the destruction of the temple and of Jerusalem, and of God's people by the Chaldeans.

2 Thy congregation - Thy people. Thine inheritance - The tribe of Judah, which thou hast in a special manner chosen for thine inheritance, and for the birth of the Messiah. Nor is it strange that he mentions this tribe particularly, because the calamity here remembered, did principally befal this tribe, and Benjamin, which was united with it.
3 Lift up - Come speedily to our rescue. Because - Because otherwise our destruction is irrecoverable.
4 Roar - In a way of triumph. Midst, &c. - In the places where thy people used to assemble for thy worship. Set up - Monuments of their victory.
5 Famous - The temple was so noble a structure, that it was a great honour to any man to be employed in the meanest part of the work, though it were but in cutting down the trees of Lebanon.
6 Axes and hammers - These words are not Hebrew, but Chaldee or Syriack, to point out the time when this was done, even when the Chaldeans brought in their language, together with their arms, among the Israelites.
8 Destroy them - All at once. So they intended, although afterwards they changed their council, and carried some away captive. Burnt up - All the public places wherein the Jews used to meet together to worship God every sabbath - day.
9 Signs - Those tokens of God's gracious presence, which we used to enjoy. The temple and ark, and sacrifices, and solemn feasts, were signs between God and his people. Prophet - Who can foretell things to come. Probably Ezekiel and Jeremiah were dead when this psalm was composed; and David was involved in civil affairs, and did not teach the people as a prophet. Knoweth - How long their captivity should continue.
11 Why - Why dost thou forebear the exercise of thy power? Bosom - In which thou now seemest to hide it.
12 King - It belongs therefore to thy office to protect and save me. Midst - In the view of the world.
13 Dragons - He means Pharaoh and his mighty men.
14 Leviathan - Pharaoh. The people - To the ravenous birds and beasts of the desert. These creatures are significantly called the people of the wilderness, because they are the only people that inhabit it.
15 The flood - Thou didst by cleaving the rock, make a fountain and a stream to flow from it, for the refreshment of thy people in those dry deserts. Driedst - Jordan and the Red Sea; for the sea itself; yea, a greater sea than that, is called a river, Jonah 2:3, where the Hebrew word is the same which is here used. And the same title is expressly given to the sea, by Homer, and other ancient writers.
16 The light - The moon, the lesser light.
17 Set - Thou hast fixed the bounds of the habitable world in general, and of all the countries and people upon the earth. And as this clause shews God's power over all places, so the next displays his dominion over all times and seasons.
18 Remember - Though we deserve to be forgotten, yet do not suffer our enemies to reproach the name of the great and glorious God.
19 Soul - The life. Turtle - dove - Of thy church, which is fitly compared to a turtle - dove, because simple and harmless, and meek, and faithful.
20 The covenant - Made with Abraham, whereby thou didst give the land of Canaan to him, and to his seed for ever. Dark places - This dark and dismal land in which we live.
21 Return - From the throne of thy grace, to which they make their resort.

Chapter LXXV

Probably David wrote this psalm, at his coming to the crown, after the death of Saul, and delivered it to that Asaph, who was chief of the musicians. Herein he thanks God for bringing him to the throne, checks the insolence of his enemies, owns the sovereignty of God in all affairs, and promised to lay himself out for the public good. To the chief musician, Al - taschith, A psalm or song of Asaph.

Title of the psalm. Asaph - This psalm seems to relate to the time when David had entered upon, but not got full possession of the kingdom.

1 Thy name - Thy self; art present with us, and ready to help.
2 Receive - The whole congregation, all the tribes.
3 Dissolved - Or, destroyed; by intestine divisions and wars. I hear - I support it, by maintaining religion and justice, by setting up good magistrates, and encouraging good ministers, and good men, who are indeed the pillars of a nation.
4 I said - I charged them. Deal not - Desist from your practices. Lift not up - Do not carry yourselves scornfully and maliciously.
5 Lift not - A metaphor from untamed oxen, which will not bow their heads to receive the yoke. Stiff neck - With pride and contempt.
8 For - God is here compared to the master of a feast, who then used to distribute portions of meat and drink to the several guests. A cup - Of vengeance. Red - Such as the best wine of Judea was. Mixture - The wine is mingled not with water, but with strengthening and intoxicating ingredients. Dregs - The worst and most dreadful part of those tribulations. Shall wring - This dreadful draught was brought upon them by their own choice and wickedness.
9 Declare - The praises of God.
10 Horns - Their honour and power, which they made an instrument of mischief. Will - When I shall be advanced to the throne. But - Good men shall be encouraged and promoted.

Chapter LXXVI

Asaph congratulates the church, in having God so nigh, ver. 1 - 3. He celebrates the power of God, shewn in some late victory over their enemies, ver. 4 - 6. He shews that all ought to fear him on this account, ver. 7 - 9 And that his people ought to trust him, and to pay their vows, ver. 10 - 12. To the chief musician on Neginoth, A psalm or song of Asaph.

2 Salem - In Jerusalem, which was anciently called Salem. Zion - Largely so called, as it includes Moriah, an adjoining hill.
3 There - At Jerusalem. Sword - Both offensive and defensive weapons. Battle - All the power of the army, which was put in battle - array.
4 Thou - O God. Than - The greatest kings and empires of the earth, which in prophetic writings are often compared to mountains. And they are called mountains of prey, because they generally were established by tyranny, and maintained by preying upon their own subjects, or other kingdoms.
5 Sleep - Even a perpetual sleep.
6 Chariot - The men who rode upon, and fought from chariots and horses.
8 Thou - Didst execute judgment upon thine enemies, by an angel from heaven: which is said to be heard, either because it was accompanied with thunders and earthquakes, or because the fame of it was quickly spread abroad. Feared - The rest of the world were afraid to disturb Israel.
10 Surely - The furious attempts of thine enemies, shall cause thy people and others to praise thee for thy admirable wisdom, power, and faithfulness.
11 Vow - A sacrifice of thanksgiving for this wonderful deliverance. Let all - All the neighboring nations submit to the God of Israel.
12 Cut off - As men do their grapes in time of vintage; so the Hebrew verb implies. The spirit - Their breath and life, as he did in the Assyrian army.

Chapter LXXVII

The psalmist complains of deep distress, and temptations to despair, ver. 1 - 10. He encourages himself to hope, by the remembrance of what God had done formerly, ver. 11 - 20. To the chief musician, to Jeduthun, A psalm of Asaph.

2 Night - Which to others was a time of rest and quietness.
3 Troubled - Yea, the thoughts of God were now a matter of trouble, because he was angry with me. Overwhelmed - So far was I from finding relief.
4 Waking - By continual grief.
5 The days - The mighty works of God in former times.
6 My song - The mercies of God vouchsafed to me, and to his people, which have obliged me to sing his praises, not only in the day, but also by night.
7 Cut off - His peculiar people.
10 I said - These suspicions of God's faithfulness proceed from the weakness of my faith. The years - The years wherein God hath done great and glorious works, which are often ascribed to God's right - hand.
13 In holiness - God is holy and just, and true in all his works.
16 Afraid - And stood still, as men astonished, do.
17 Poured - When the Israelites passed over the sea. Arrows - Hail - stones or lightnings.
19 Not known - Because the water returned and covered them.
20 Leddest - First through the sea, and afterwards through the wilderness, with singular care and tenderness, as a shepherd doth his sheep.


This psalm is a narrative of the great mercies God had bestowed upon Israel, the great sins wherewith they had provoked him, and the many tokens of his displeasure at them. Here is, The preface, ver. 1 - 8. The general scope of this psalm, ver. 9 - 11. As to the particulars, we are told, what God had done for them; how ungrateful they were for his favours; how God had justly punished them; and how graciously he had spared them, notwithstanding all their provocations, ver. 12 - 72. Maschil of Asaph.

1 My law - The doctrine which I am about to deliver.
2 Parable - Weighty sentences. Dark sayings - Not that the words are hard to be understood, but the things, God's transcendent goodness, their unparallel'd ingratitude; and their stupid ignorance and insensibleness, under such excellent teachings of God's word and works, are prodigious and hard to be believed. Of old - Of things done in ancient times.
5 Established - This is justly put in first place, as the chief of all his mercies. A testimony - His law, called a testimony, because it is a witness between God and men, declaring the duties which God expects from man, and the blessings which man may expect from God.
9 Ephraim - That Ephraim is here put for all Israel seems evident from the following verses, wherein the sins, upon which this overthrow is charged, are manifestly the sins of all the children of Israel, and they who are here called Ephraim are called Jacob and Israel, ver.21, and this passage may refer to that dreadful overthrow related, 1Sam 4:10,11, which is particularly named, because as the ark, so the flight was in that tribe. And the psalmist having related this amazing providence, falls into a large discourse of the causes of it, namely, the manifold sins of that and the former generations, which having prosecuted from hence to ver.60, he there returns to this history, and relates the sad consequence of that disaster, the captivity of the ark, and God's forsaking of Shiloh and Ephraim, and removing thence to the tribe of Judah and mount Zion. Bows - These are put for all arms.
12 Field - In the territory. Zoan - An ancient and eminent city of Egypt.
15 Wilderness - In Rephidim, and again in Kadesh.
16 Streams - Which miraculously followed them in all their travels, even to the borders of Canaan.
17 Wilderness - Where they had such singular obligations to obedience. This was a great aggravation of their sins.
18 Tempted - Desired a proof of God's power. Lust - Not for their necessary subsistence, but out of an inordinate and luxurious appetite.
22 Trusted not - That he both could, and would save them from the famine which they feared.
23 Heaven - Which he compares to a store - house, whereof God shuts or opens the doors, as he sees fit.
25 Angels food - Manna, so called, because it was made by the ministry of angels.
26 South wind - First an eastern, and afterwards a southern wind.
27 Fowl - But God took away from them the use of their wings, and made them to fall into the hands of the Israelites.
31 Mightiest - The most healthy and strong, who probably were most desirous of this food, and fed most eagerly upon it.
33 Vanity - In tedious and fruitless marches hither and thither. Trouble - In manifold diseases, dangers, and perplexities.
34 Returned - From their idols. Enquired - Speedily sought to God for ease and safety.
35 Redeemer - That God alone had preserved them in all their former exigencies, and that he only could help them.
36 Lied - They made but false protestations of their sincere resolutions of future obedience.
42 Hand - The glorious works of his hand. Enemy - That remarkable day, in which God delivered them from their greatest enemy, Pharaoh.
45 Flies - These flies were doubtless extraordinary in their nature, and hurtful qualities. And the like is to be thought concerning the frogs.
46 Labour - The herbs which were come up by their care and labour.
47 Sycamore - trees - Under these and the vines, all other trees are comprehended. This hail and frost destroyed the fruit of the trees, and sometimes the trees themselves.
49 Evil angels - Whom God employed in producing these plagues.
51 Ham - Of the Egyptians, the posterity of Ham, the cursed children of a cursed parent.
54 Holy place - The land of Canaan, separated by God from all other lands. Mountain - The mountainous country of Canaan; the word mountain is often used in scripture for a mountainous country.
57 Deceitful bow - Which either breaks when it is drawn, or shoots awry, and frustrates the archer's expectation.
59 Heard - Perceived or understood, it is spoken of God after the manner of men.
60 Shiloh - Which was placed in Shiloh. Among men - Whereby he insinuates both God's wonderful condescension, and their stupendous folly in despising so glorious a privilege.
61 His strength - The ark, called God's strength, 1Chron 16:11, because it was the sign and pledge of his strength put forth on his people's behalf. Glory - So the ark is called, as being the monument and seat of God's glorious presence. Enemies - The Philistines.
64 Priests - Hophni and Phinehas. No lamentation - No funeral solemnities; either because they were prevented by their own death, as the wife of Phinehas was, or disturbed by the invasion of the enemy.
66 Smote - Them with the piles. Reproach - He caused them to perpetuate their own reproach by sending back the ark of God with their golden emrods, the lasting monuments of their shame.
67 Refused - He would not have his ark to abide any longer in the tabernacle of Shiloh, which was in the tribe of Joseph or Ephraim.
68 Chose - For the seat of the ark and of God's worship.
69 Sanctuary - The temple of Solomon. Palaces - Magnificent and gloriously. Established - Not now to be moved from place to place, as the tabernacle was, but as a fixed place for the ark's perpetual residence.

Chapter LXXIX

This psalm seems to have been written by the later Asaph, upon the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans. It contains, a representation of the deplorable condition of the Jews, ver. 1 - 5. And a petition for deliverance, ver. 6 - 13. A psalm of Asaph.

8 Prevent - Prevent our utter extirpation.
11 The prisoner - Of thy poor people now in captivity.

Chapter LXXX

This psalm was composed upon occasion of some calamity, which befel the tribes of Israel after their division into two kingdoms, and before the captivity of either of them. In which time all the evils mentioned herein did befal them, sometimes in one part, and sometimes in another. The psalmist prays for the tokens of God's presence, ver. 1 - 3. Complains of heavy distress, ver. 4 - 7. Illustrates this, by the comparison of a vine, ver. 8 - 16. Concludes with a prayer for mercy, ver. 17 - 19. To the chief musician upon Shoshannim Eduth, A psalm of Asaph.

Title of the psalm. Shoshannim Eduth - It seems to be the name of a musical instrument.

1 Joseph - The children of Joseph or Israel. The name of Joseph, the most eminent of the patriarchs, is elsewhere put for all the tribes. Cherubim - Which were by the mercy seat above the ark.
2 Before Ephraim - Here is an allusion to the ancient situation of the tabernacle in the wilderness, where these tribes were placed on the west - side of the tabernacle, in which the ark was, which consequently was before them.
3 Turn us - To thy self.
9 Preparedst - Thou didst root out the idolatrous nations. Deep root - Thou gavest them a firm settlement.
10 The hills - They filled not only the fruitful valleys, but even the barren mountains.
11 The river - They possessed the whole land, from the mid - land sea to the river Euphrates.
12 Hedges - Taken away thy protection.
16 They - Thy people, signified by the vine. So now he passes from the metaphor to the thing designed by it.
17 Be - To protect and strengthen him. Right - hand - Benjamin signifies the son of the right hand, a dearly beloved son, as Benjamin was to Jacob. Son of man - The people of Israel, who are often spoken of as one person, as God's son and first - born.
18 Go back - Revolt from thee to idolatry or wickedness. Quicken - Revive and restore us to our tranquility.

Chapter LXXXI

This psalm may assist us in our solemn feast - days, in praising God, for what he is, and what he has done, ver. 1 - 7. In admonishing one another, concerning our obligations to God, the danger of revolting from him, and the happiness of keeping close to him, ver 8 - 16. To the chief musician upon Gittith, A psalm of Asaph.

5 Joseph - Among the people of Israel. Testimony - For a witness of that glorious deliverance. He - God. Went - As a captain at the head of his people. Egypt - To execute his judgments upon that land. I - My progenitors, for all the successive generations of Israel make one body, and are sometimes spoken of as one person. A language - The Egyptian language, which at first was unknown to the Israelites, Gen 42:13, and probably continued so for some considerable time, because they were much separated both in place and conversation from the Egyptians.
6 Pots - This word denotes all those vessels wherein they carried water, straw, lime, or bricks.
7 Calledst - At the Red Sea. Secret place - From the dark and cloudy pillar, whence I thundered against the Egyptians.
8 Testify - This God did presently after he brought them from Meribah, even at Sinai.
10 Wide - Either to pray for mercies, or to receive the mercies which I am ready to give you.
15 Him - Unto Israel. Their time - Their happy time.
16 Honey - With all pleasant and precious fruits.

Chapter LXXXII

We have here the dignity and duty of magistrates, ver. 1 - 4. The wickedness of some magistrates, and their doom, ver. 5 - 7. A prayer to God, ver. 8. A psalm of Asaph.

1 Standeth - To observe all that is said or done there. Mighty - Kings or chief rulers. By their congregation he understands all persons whatsoever of this high and sacred order. Judgeth - Passes sentence upon them. The gods - Judges and magistrates are called gods, because they have their commission from God, and act as his deputies.
2 How long - The psalmist speaks to them in God's name. Accept - By giving sentence according to your respect or affection to the person.
5 They - The magistrates of whom this psalm treats. Know not - The duty of their place. Nor will - Their ignorance is wilful. Walk on - They persist: it is their constant course. In darkness - In their sinful courses. The foundations - This corruption of the supreme rulers, flows from them to their inferior officers and members.
6 Have said - I have given you my name and power to rule your people in my stead. All - Not only the rulers of Israel, but of all other nations. Children - Representing my person, and bearing both my name and authority.
7 Like men - Or, like ordinary men.
8 Arise - Take the sword of justice into thine own hand.


A remonstrance of the designs and endeavours of Israel's enemies, ver. 1 - 8. A prayer, that God would defeat them, preserve his church, and get himself glory, ver. 9 - 18. A song or psalm of Asaph.

3 Hidden ones - Thy people of Israel, who are called God's hidden or secret ones, to intimate the respect which God has to them, as to his peculiar treasure.
6 The tabernacles - The people dwelling in them. Ishmaelites - Some of the posterity of Ishmael, called by their father's name, as others of them are supposed to be called Hagarens from their grandmother Hagar.
7 Gebal - An Arabian people so called by ancient writers dwelling in the southern border of Canaan, where most of the people here mentioned had their abode.
8 Of Lot - Moab and Ammon.
13 A wheel - Whereas they promise to themselves a sure possession, let them be like a wheel, which is very unstable, and soon removed.
14 The mountains - The woods upon the mountains, which in those hot countries, when they have once taken fire, burn with irresistible violence.
16 May seek - May own and worship thee as the only true God.

Chapter LXXXIV

The psalmist declares his love for the ordinances of God, and the happiness of those that enjoy them, ver. 1 - 7. A devout prayer, and expression of faith in him, ver. 8 - 12. It is generally supposed, David wrote this, when he was driven out of the land by Absalom. To the chief musician upon Gittith, A psalm for the sons of Korah.

4 They - That constantly abide in thy house; the priests and Levites, or other devout Jews who were there perpetually, as Anna, Luke 2:36 - 37. They will - They are continually employed in that blessed work.
5 Whose strength - Who trusteth in thee as his only strength. Thy ways - Blessed are they whose hearts are set upon Zion and their journey is thither.
6 Baca - A dry valley in the way to Jerusalem, here put for all places of like nature. Make a well - They dig divers little pits or wells in it for their relief. The rain - God recompenses their diligence with his blessing, sending rain wherewith they may be filled.
7 They go - They grow stronger and stronger. Appeareth - This is added as the blessed fruit of their long and tedious journey.
9 Look - Cast a favourable eye towards him. Anointed - Of me, who though a vile sinner, am thine anointed king.
10 Than dwell - In the greatest glory and plenty.
11 A sun - To enlighten and quicken, and direct and comfort his people. Shield - To save his people from all their enemies. Grace - His favour, which is better than life. Glory - The honour which comes from God here, and eternal glory.

Chapter LXXXV

A recital of past, and prayer for present mercy, ver. 1 - 7. A prediction of a favourable answer, ver. 8 - 13. To the chief musician, A psalm for the sons of Korah.

1 Captivity - The captives.
4 Turn us - Restore us to our former tranquillity, and free us from the troubles which we yet groan under.
6 Revive us - Give us a second reviving in bringing home the rest of our brethren, and in restraining our enemies.
8 Will hear - Diligently observe. Will speak - What answer God will give to my prayers. Peace - He will give an answer of peace. Saints - Not to all that are called God's people, but only to those who are truly such.
9 His salvation - That compleat salvation for which all the Israel of God wait; even the redemption by the Messiah; of which not only Christian, but even Jewish writers understand this place; and to which the following passages properly belong. And the psalmist might well say this salvation was nigh, because the seventy weeks determined by Daniel were begun. Glory - The glorious presence of God, and the God of glory himself, even Christ, who is the brightness of his father's glory.
10 Kissed - That great work of redemption by Christ, shall clearly manifest God's mercy in redeeming his people Israel, and in the conversion of the Gentiles; his truth in fulfilling that great promise of sending his son, his righteousness in punishing sin, on his son, and in conferring righteousness upon guilty and lost creatures; and his peace or reconciliation to sinners, and that peace of conscience which attends upon it.
11 Truth - Truth among men. Righteousness - And God's justice shall be satisfied: he shall look down upon sinful men with a smiling countenance.
13 Before him - As his harbinger. He shall fulfil all righteousness, he shall satisfy the righteousness of God, and shall advance righteousness and holiness among men. Set us - Shall cause us to walk in those righteous ways wherein he walketh.

Chapter LXXXVI

David prays for the favour and blessing of God, ver. 1 - 6. Expresses confidence in him, by praise mingled with prayer, ver. 7 - 17. A prayer of David.

2 Holy - Sincerely devoted to thy service.
11 Truth - In the way of thy precepts, which are true and right in all things. My heart - Knit my whole heart to thyself.
13 Hell - From extreme dangers and miseries.


This psalm contains a commendation of Zion, a type of the gospel - church, which is here preferred before the rest of the land of Canaan, ver. 1,2,3. And before any other place, as being filled with more eminent men, and more of divine blessings, ver. 4 - 7. A psalm or song for the sons of Korah.

1 Its foundation - The foundation of the temple of God.
2 Zion - That is, Zion itself, or Jerusalem, which was built upon and near mount Zion. He saith Zion rather than Jerusalem, to intimate that he loved Jerusalem for Zion's sake, or for the temple, which he chose for his peculiar dwelling place.
4 Rahab - Egypt, so called, either from its pride or natural strength. Babylon - Under these two and Philistia, the constant enemies of Israel, he seems to understand all the enemies of the church of God, who shall now be not only reconciled but united to them. Arabia - The nations on every side of them, for Tyre was on the north, Arabia on the South; those nearest to them, and those more remote from them.
5 Zion - Of Jerusalem, or the church of God. Said - It shall be acknowledged. Man - Heb. Man and man, all sorts of men without difference of nations. Establish - And this shall not be a transient, but a lasting work; Zion shall continue in its strength and fertility because the Almighty God is her founder and protector.
6 When - When God, the maker and governor of this city shall take a survey of all his citizens. It is an allusion to princes or governors of cities that use to write and keep a register of all their people.
7 Singers - There shall be great rejoicing and praising God, both with vocal and instrumental musick, for this glorious work of the conversion of the Gentiles. He describe's evangelical worship, by legal phrases and customs, as the prophets frequently do. In thee - In Zion or the church. These words may be here added as the burden of the song, which these singers are supposed to have sung, in the name of all the people of God. All our desires and delights are in thee, all the springs of mercy, grace, and glory, flow to us only in and thro' thee.


This is the most melancholy of all the psalms: it is all lamentation, and mourning, and woe. Here we have the pressure of spirit which the psalmist was under, ver. 1 - 9. His humble pleadings with God, ver. 10 - 14. A farther declaration of his affliction, ver. 15 - 18. A song or psalm for the sons of Korah, to the chief musician upon Mahalath Leannoth, Maschil of Heman the Ezrahite.

Title of the psalm. Leannoth - Which seems to be the name of the instrument. Heman - Probably the same person who was famous in David's time, both for his skill in musick, and for wisdom.

4 Counted - l am given up by my friends for a lost man.
5 Free - Well nigh discharged from the warfare of the present life, and entered as a member into the society of the dead. Whom - Thou seemest to neglect and bury in oblivion.
7 Waves - With they judgments, breaking in furiously upon me like the waves of the sea.
10 Wonders - In raising them to life. To praise thee - In this world?
12 Forgetfulness - In the grave, where men are forgotten by their nearest relations.
13 Prevent - Come to thee before the dawning of the day, or the rising of the sun.
17 Water - As the waters of the sea encompass him who is in the midst of it.

Chapter LXXXIX

This psalm manifestly treats of the declining state of the house and kingdom of David, in or about the Babylonish captivity. The psalmist praises and rejoices in God, ver. 1 - 18. He builds all his hopes on God's covenant with David, ver. 19 - 37. He laments the present calamities of the king and royal family, ver. 38 - 45. Expostulates with, prays to God, and praises him, ver. 46 - 52. Maschil of Ethan the Ezrahite.

Title of the psalm. Ezrahite - Not him who is mentioned, 1Kings 4:31, but some person of the same name, and inspired by the same spirit, who lived long after.

1 Sing - He prefaces this, lest the following complainers of present miseries should argue ingratitude for former mercies. Faithfulness - Whatsoever hath befallen us, it proceeded not from thy unfaithfulness.
2 Establish - As firmly and durably as the heavens themselves.
3 Chosen - With David; whom I have chosen to the kingdom.
4 Build up - I will perpetuate the kingdom to thy posterity; which was promised upon condition, and was literally accomplished in Christ.
5 Heavens - The inhabitants of heaven. Faithfulness - Understand, shall be praised; which supplements are usual in scripture.
6 Among - The highest angels.
7 Feared - With a fear of reverence. Saints - The whole society of angels. All that - That encompass his throne.
8 Round thee - Like a girdle encompassing thee. It appears in all thy words and works.
10 Rhahab - Egypt.
12 Tabor - The several parts of the land of Canaan, both within Jordan, where mount Tabor is; and without it, where Hermon lies. Rejoice - Shall be fruitful and prosperous, and so give their inhabitants cause to rejoice. In - By thy favour.
14 Justice and judgment - Justice in judging.
15 Know - Who enjoy the presence of God and his ordinances, to which they are called by the sound of trumpets. Walk - Under the comfortable influences of thy favour.
16 Name - In the knowledge and remembrance of thy name, of thy infinite power and goodness.
17 The glory - To thee alone belongs the glory of all their valiant achievements.
19 Vision - Which then was the usual way by which God spake to the prophets. Holy one - To thy holy prophets; the singular number being put for the plural; especially to Samuel and Nathan. Laid help - I have provided help for my people. Upon - Upon a person of singular courage and wisdom.
22 Exact - Not conquer him or make him tributary.
25 Set - Establish his power and dominion. The sea - The mid - land sea. The rivers - Euphrates, called rivers, in regard of divers branches of it, and rivers which flow into it. So here is a description of the uttermost bounds of the promised land.
27 My first - born - As he calls me father, ver.26, so I will make him my son, yea my first - born; who had divers privileges above other sons. This and the following passage in some sort agree to David, but are properly accomplished in Christ. Higher - This also was in some sort accomplished in David, but more fully in the Messiah.
29 For ever - To sit upon the throne for ever, as the next words explain it. This was accomplished only in Christ.
37 A witness - The rainbow, which is God's faithful witness, a token of God's everlasting covenant between God and every living creature for perpetual generations, Gen 9:12,16.
38 But - Having hitherto declared the certainty of God's promises, he now humbly expostulates with God about it.
45 Youth - The youthful and flourishing estate of David's kingdom was very short, and reached not beyond his next successor.
47 Short - Our time, the time of our king and kingdom, in whose name the psalmist puts up this petition. Wherefore - Wherefore hast thou made us and our king (and consequently all other men, whose condition is nothing better than ours) in vain, or to so little purpose? Didst thou raise us and him, settle the crown upon David's head by a solemn covenant, and vouchsafe so many and great promises and privileges, and all this but for a few years, that our crown and glory should be taken from us, within a little time after it was put upon our heads?
48 What man - All men at their best estate are mortal and miserable; kings and people must unavoidably die by the conditions of their natures; and therefore, Lord, do not increase our affliction.
50 How I - We thy servants; our king and his people; of whom he speaks as of one person.
51 Anointed - By whom he seems to understand either first the kings of Judah, the singular number being put for the plural; and by their footsteps may be meant either their ways or actions, or the memorials of their ancient splendor; or secondly the Messiah, whom the Jews continually expected for a long time, which being well known to many of the Heathens, they reproached the Jews, with the vanity of this expectation. And by the footsteps of the Messiah, he may understand his coming.
52 Blessed - Let thine enemies reproach thee and thy promises concerning the sending of the Messiah, I will heartily bless and praise thee for them, and encourage myself with them.


Probably Moses wrote this psalm, on occasion of the sentence passed

on the Israelites, that their carcases should fall in the wilderness.

Herein he considers the eternity of God, ver. 1 - 3.

And the frailty of man, ver, 4 - 6.

He submits to the righteous sentence of God, ver. 7 - 11.

And prays for the return of his favour, ver. 12 - 17.

A prayer of Moses the Man of God. Title of the psalm. A prayer of Moses - Who considering that terrible sentence of God, concerning the cutting off all that sinful generation in the wilderness, takes occasion to publish these meditations concerning man's mortality and misery.

V. 1. Dwelling place - Although we and our fathers, for some generations, have had no fixed habitation, yet thou hast been instead of a dwelling - place to us, by thy watchful and gracious providence. And this intimates that all the following miseries were not to be imputed to God but themselves.

2 Thou - Thou hadst thy power, and all thy perfections, from all eternity.
3 Turnedst - But as for man, his case is far otherwise, though he was made by thee happy. and immortal, yet for his sin thou didst make him mortal and miserable. Saidst - Didst pronounce that sad sentence, return, O men, to the dust out of which ye were taken, Gen 3:19.
4 Past - Indeed time seems long when it is to come, but when it is past, very short and contemptible. A watch - Which lasted but three or four hours.
5 Them - Mankind. Away - Universally, without exception or distinction. A sleep - Short and vain, as sleep is, and not minded 'till it be past.
7 Are consumed - Thou dost not suffer us to live so long as we might by the course of nature.
8 Hast set - Thou dost observe them, as a righteous judge, and art calling us to an account for them. Secret sins - Which though hid from the eyes of men, thou hast brought to light by thy judgments.
10 Our years - Of the generality of mankind, in that and all following ages, some few persons excepted. Flee - We do not now go to death, as we do from our very birth, but flee swiftly away like a bird, as this word signifies.
11 Thy fear - According to the fear of thee; according to that fear which sinful men have of a just God. So - It bears full proportion to it, nay indeed doth far exceed it.
12 Teach us - To consider the shortness of life, and the certainty and speediness of death. That - That we may heartily devote ourselves to true wisdom.
13 Return - To us in mercy. How long - Will it be before thou return to us? Repent thee - Of thy severe proceedings against us.
14 Early - Speedily.
17 The beauty - His gracious influence, and glorious presence. In us - Do not only work for us, but in us,


This psalm is a dialogue, wherein one declares the safety of them,

who take God for their keeper, ver. 1.

David declares this to be his resolution, ver. 2.

Various promises are made to him, ver. 3 - 13.

Which God himself confirms, ver. 14 - 16.

1 He - He that makes God his habitation and refuge.
3 Pestilence - From the pestilence, which like a fowler's snare takes men suddenly and unexpectedly.
5 By night - When evil accidents are most terrible and least avoidable. Arrow - The pestilence, or any such destructive calamity; such are frequently called God's arrows. By day - Thou shalt be kept from secret and open mischiefs.
6 Darkness - Invisibly, so that we can neither foresee nor prevent it.
12 Bear thee - Sustain or uphold thee in thy goings, as we do a child.
13 The lion - Shall lie prostrate at thy feet, and thou shalt securely put thy feet upon his neck. Dragon - By which he understands all pernicious creatures, though never so strong, and all sorts of enemies.
14 Because - This and the two following verses are the words of God.


God is praised for his works, ver. 1 - 5.

The doom of the wicked, from the eternal God, ver. 6 - 9.

The prosperity of the righteous, ver. 10 - 15.

A psalm or song for the sabbath - day.

5 Thoughts - Thy counsels in the government of the world and of thy church.
6 A brutish man - Who is led by sense, not by reason and faith. This - The depth of God's counsels and works.
10 Anointed - I shall have cause of testifying my joy by anointing myself, as the manner was at all joyful solemnities.
12 Palm - tree - Which is constantly green and flourishing.
13 Planted - Whom God by his gracious providence has fixed there. The house - In its courts; he means in the church of God, whereof all good men are living members.
14 Old age - Their last days shall be their best days, wherein they shall grow in grace, and increase in blessedness.


This and the six following psalms, according to the opinion of the

Hebrew doctors, belong to the times of the Messiah.

The glory of God's kingdom, both of providence and glory, ver. 1 - 6.

1 Clothed - That majesty and strength which he always had, he will shew in the eyes of all people. Moved - He will overrule all the confusions in the world, so that they shall end in the erection of that kingdom of the Messiah, which can never be moved.
3 Floods - The enemies of thy kingdom.
5 Testimonies - Thy promises, which no less than the precepts are God's testimonies, or the witnesses, or declarations of his will to mankind. He seems here to speak of those precious promises concerning the erection of his kingdom in the world by the Messiah. Holiness - It becometh thy people to be holy in all their approach to thee.


The danger and folly of persecuting the children of God, ver. 1 - 11.

Assurance given to the persecuted, that God will deliver them,

ver. 12 - 23.

4 Utter - Or pour forth freely, constantly, abundantly, as a fountain doth waters (so this Hebrew word signifies.) Hard things - Insolent, and intolerable words against thee and thy people.
7 Of Jacob - He who takes that name to himself, but has no regard to his people.
9 Planted - The word is emphatical, signifying the excellent structure of the ear, or the several organs belonging to the sense of hearing. Formed - By which word he intimates the accurate and curious workmanship of the eye.
10 Know - Mens thoughts and words and actions.
11 Thoughts - Yes, he knoweth all things, even the most secret things, as the thoughts of men; and in particular your thoughts; much more your practices.
12 Blessed - Those afflictions which are accompanied with Divine instructions are great and true blessings.
15 But - God will declare himself to be a righteous judge, and will again establish justice in the earth. Follow - They will all approve of it, and imitate this justice of God in all their actions.
16 Rise - To defend and help me. I looked hither and thither, but none appeared; God alone helped me.
17 Dwelt - In the place of silence, the grave.
19 Thoughts - While my heart was filled with various and perplexing thoughts, as this Hebrew word signifies. Comforts - Thy promises, and the remembrance of my former experience of thy care and kindness.
20 Shall - Wilt thou take part with the unrighteous powers of the world who oppress thy people. A law - By virtue of those unrighteous decrees which they have made.


The author of this psalm was David, as is affirmed, Heb 4:7.

It has a special reference to the days of the Messiah; as it is

understood by the apostle, Heb 3:7 &c. and Heb 4:3 - 9.

Herein we are called upon, to praise God, as a great and gracious God,

ver. 1 - 7.

To hear God's voice, and not harden our hearts, lest we fall as the

Israelites did, ver. 8 - 11.

3 God's - Above all that are called God's angels, earthly potentates, and especially the false gods of the Heathen.
4 Hand - Under his government. Strength - The strongest or highest mountains.
7 Pasture - Whom he feeds and keeps in his own pasture, or in the land which he hath appropriated to himself. The sheep - Which are under his special care. Today - Forthwith or presently.
8 Harden not - By obstinate unbelief. Provocation - In that bold and wicked contest with God in the wilderness. Temptation - In the day in which you tempted me.
9 Works - Both of mercy, and of justice.
10 Do err - Their hearts are insincere and bent to backsliding. Not known - After all my teaching and discoveries of myself to them; they did not know, nor consider, those great things which I had wrought for them.
11 My rest - Into the promised land, which is called the rest, Deut 12:9.


This psalm is a part of that which was delivered to Asaph and his

brethren, 1Chron 16:7,

on occasion of bringing up the ark to the city of David.

Here is a call to praise God, as a great and glorious God, ver. 1 - 9.

To rejoice in his judging all the world, ver. 10 - 13.

1 O sing - Upon this new and great occasion, not the removal of the ark, but the coming of the Messiah.
4 Gods - The gods of the nations, as the next verse expounds it.
6 Before him - In his presence.
9 Beauty - Cloathed with all the gifts and graces, which are necessary in God's worship.
10 Reigneth - God hath now set up his kingdom in the world. Established - The nations of the world shall by the means of it enjoy an established and lasting peace.
13 Before - At the presence and approach of their Lord and Maker. Cometh - To set up his throne among all the nations of the earth.


Christ is the Alpha and Omega in this psalm.

His government speaks terror to his enemies, ver. 1 - 7.

And comfort to his friends, whom he preserves and delivers, ver. 8 - 12.

1 Isles - The Gentile nations, as this word, used Isa 42:4, is expounded, Matt 12:21.
2 Darkness - A dark cloud doth encompass him.
6 Heavens - The angels, yea God himself from heaven.
7 Confounded - Let them be ashamed of their folly. Gods - All you whom the Gentiles have made the objects of their worship.
8 Zion - Thy people dwelling in Zion or Jerusalem, to whom Christ came. Heard - The fame of thy judgments, and the setting up the kingdom of the Messiah.
11 Light - Joy and happiness. Sown - Is laid up for them.


This psalm sets forth the glory of the Redeemer, ver. 1 - 3.

And the joy of the redeemed, ver. 4 - 9.

A psalm.

2 Salvation - The redemption of the world by the Messiah: which was hitherto reserved was a secret among the Jews, yea was not throughly known by the most of the Jews themselves. Righteousness - His faithfulness in accomplishing this great promise.


Israel is required to praise God, for their hasty constitution both in

church and state, ver. 1 - 5.

Some instances of the happy administration of it, ver. 6 - 9.

1 People - Such as are enemies to God and his people. Sitteth - Upon the ark. He is present with his people. Earth - The people of the earth. Moved - With fear and trembling.
3 Them - All people.
4 Judgment - Though his dominion be absolute, and his power irresistible, yet he manages it with righteousness. The king's strength is by a known Hebraism put for the strong, or powerful king. Equity - In all thy proceedings.
5 Foot - stool - Before the ark, which is so called, 1Chron 28:2. Holy - It is consecrated to be a pledge of God's presence.
6 Moses - Moses before the institution of the priesthood executed that office, Exod 24:6. That call - Who used frequently and solemnly to intercede with God on the behalf of the people.
7 Spake - To some of them: to Moses and Aaron, Exod 19:24 33:9 - 11 1Sam 7:9, &c.
8 Them - The intercessors before mentioned. Forgavest - The people for whom they prayed, so far as not to inflict that total destruction upon them which they deserved;


An exhortation to praise God and to rejoice in him, ver. 1 - 5

A psalm of praise.


This psalm was composed by David between the time of God's promising

the kingdom to him and his actual possession of it.

The general scope of David's vow, at his entrance on his government,

ver. 1, 2.

The particulars of it ver. 3 - 8.

A psalm of David.

1 I will sing - I will praise thee, O Lord, for thy mercy and justice, which thou hast so eminently discovered in the government of the world, and of thy people; and I will make it my care to imitate thee herein.
2 I will - I will manage all my affairs with wisdom and integrity. When - God is often said in scripture to come to men, when he fulfills a promise to them. House - In my court and family, as well as in my public administrations.
4 Depart - Shall be turned out of my court. Know - Not own nor countenance.
8 Early - Speedily; as soon as I am seated in the throne.


A complaint of pressing afflictions, ver. 1 - 11.

Motives of comfort, ver. 12 - 28.

A prayer of the afflicted when he is overwhelmed, and poureth out

his complaint before the LORD. Title of the psalm. Complaint - This psalm contains a prayer for the use of all true Israelites, in the name and behalf of the church of Israel. It seems to have been composed in the time of their captivity, and near the end of it, ver.13, 14.

3 An hearth - An hearth is heated or burnt by the coals which are laid upon it.
5 Skin - My flesh being quite consumed.
6 A pelican - Is a solitary and mournful bird.
9 Bread - The sense is, dust and ashes are as familiar to me as the eating of my bread; I cover my head with them; I sit, yea, lie down in them, as mourners often did.
10 Lifted me - As a man lifts up a thing as high as he can, that he may cast it to the ground with greater force.
12 Remembrance - Thy name, Jehovah, which is called by this very word, God's remembrance, or memorial, and that unto all generations, Exod 3:15.
13 The set time - The end of those seventy years which thou hast fixed.
18 This - This wonderful deliverance shall be carefully recorded by thy people.
19 Looked - From heaven.
20 To loose - To release his poor captives out of Babylon, and from the chains of sin and eternal destruction.
21 To declare - That they might publish the name and praises of God in his church.
22 When - When the Gentiles shall gather themselves to the Jews, and join with them in the worship of the true God.
23 He - God. The way - In the midst of the course of our lives. Some think the psalmist here speaks of the whole commonwealth as of one man, and of its continuance, as of the life of one man.
24 I said - Do not wholly destroy thy people Israel. In the midst - Before they come to a full possession of thy promises and especially of that fundamental promise of the Messiah. Thy years - Though we die, yet thou art the everlasting God.
26 Perish - As to their present nature and use.
28 Continue - Though the heavens and earth perish, yet we rest assured that our children, and their children after them, shall enjoy an happy restitution to, and settlement in their own land.


The psalmist stirs up himself to praise God for all his benefits,

ver. 1 - 19.

Calls upon all his works to assist him therein, ver. 20 - 22.

A psalm of David.

5 The eagles - Which lives long in great strength and vigour.
11 So great - So much above their deserts and expectations.
14 Knoweth - The weakness and mortality of our natures, and the frailty of our condition, so that if he should let loose his hand upon us, we should be irrecoverably destroyed.
21 His hosts - A title often given to the angels, in regard of their vast numbers, mighty power, unanimous concurrence, and exquisite order. Ministers - This Hebrew word is commonly used of the highest and most honourable sort of servants,


David in the foregoing psalm praises God for his love to his people;

in this, for his works of creation and providence.

He gives God the glory of his majesty in the upper world, ver. 1 - 4.

The creation of the sea and dry land, ver. 5 - 9.

The provision he makes for all the creatures, ver. 10 - 18.

The regular course of the sun and moon, ver. 19 - 24.

The furniture of the sea, ver. 25, 26.

God's care and sovereign power over all the creatures, ver. 27 - 32.

Concludes with a resolution to continue praising God, ver. 33 - 35.

2 Light - With that first created light, which the psalmist fitly puts in the first place, as being the first of God's visible works.
3 Waters - In the waters above the heavens, as they are called, Gen 1:7.
4 Spirits - Of a spiritual or incorporeal nature, that they might be fitter for their employments. Fire - So called for their irresistible force and agility, and fervency in the execution of God's commands.
5 Who laid - Heb. he hath established the earth upon its own basis, whereby it stands as fast and unmoveable, as if it were built upon the strongest foundations. Forever - As long as the world continues. God has fixt so strange a place for the earth, that being an heavy body, one would think it should fall every moment. And yet which way so ever we would imagine it to stir, it must, contrary to the nature of such a body, fall upwards, and so can have no possible ruin, but by tumbling into heaven.
6 The deep - In the first creation, Gen 1:2,9.
7 Rebuke - Upon thy command, Gen 1:9. Fled - They immediately went to the place which God had allotted them.
8 Go up - In that first division of the waters from the earth, part went upwards, and became springs in the mountains, the greatest part went downwards to the channels made for them.
9 A bound - Even the sand of the sea - shore.
11 Wild asses - Stupid creatures, and yet plentifully provided for by the Divine providence.
13 The hills - Which most need moisture. From - From the clouds. Satisfied - By this means all the parts of the earth, are made fruitful. The fruit - With the effects of those sweet showers.
15 Oil - He alludes to the custom of those times and places, which was upon festival occasions to anoint their faces with oil. Bread - Which preserves or renews our strength and vigour.
16 Trees - Which come up, and thrive not by man's industry, but merely by the care of God's providence.
19 For seasons - To distinguish the times, the seasons of divers natural events, as of the ebbing and flowing of waters, and other seasons for sacred and civil affairs, which were commonly regulated by the moon.
20 Darkness - Which succeeds the light by virtue of thy decree.
21 Roar - They roar when they come within sight of their prey. Seek - Their roaring is a kind of natural prayer to God, for relief.
25 Creeping - This word is common to all creatures that move without feet.
26 Leviathan - The whale. Therein - Who being of such a vast strength and absolute dominion in the sea, tumbles in it with great security, and sports himself with other creatures.
29 Hidest - Withdrawest the care of thy providence.
30 Spirit - That quickening power of God, by which he produces life in the creatures from time to time. For he speaks not here of the first creation, but of the continued production of living creatures. Created - Other living creatures are produced; the word created being taken in its largest sense for the production of things by second causes. Renewest - And thus by thy wise and wonderful providence thou preservest the succession of living creatures.
31 Rejoice - Thus God advances the glory of his wisdom and power and goodness, in upholding the works of his hands from generation to generation, and he takes pleasure in the preservation of his works, as also in his reflection upon these works of his providence.
32 He looketh - This is a farther illustration of God's powerful providence: as when he affords his favour to creatures, they live and thrive, so on the contrary, one angry look or touch of his upon the hills or earth, makes them tremble and smoke, as Sinai did when God appeared in it.
35 Praise ye the Lord - Heb. Hallelujah. This is the first time that this word occurs. And it comes in here on occasion of the destruction of the wicked. And the last time it occurs, Rev 19:1,3,4,6, it is on a like occasion, the destruction of Babylon.


In the former psalm we praise God for his common providence; in this,

for his special favours to his church. The first eleven verses of it

David delivered to Asaph, (1Chron 16:7, &c.) to be used in the

daily service of the sanctuary.

Here is the preface, ver. 1 - 7.

The history itself in several articles: God's covenant with the

patriarchs, ver. 8 - 11.

His care of them in a strange land, ver. 12 - 15.

His raising up Joseph, ver. 16 - 22.

The increase of Israel in Egypt, and their deliverance out of

it, ver. 23 - 38.

His care of them in the wilderness, and their settlement in Canaan,

ver. 39 - 45.

3 Glory - Glory in the God whom you serve, as the only true God.
4 Seek - The Lord in his strength, in his sanctuary, or before the ark, which is called God's strength. Face - His gracious presence.
5 Judgments - The punishments which he brought upon Egypt by his mere word.
6 Of Jacob - The only branch of Abraham's seed to whom the following blessings belong.
7 Judgments - God executes his judgments upon all nations and people.
8 Remembered - So as to perform it. The word - The promise. Commanded - Established. Thousand generations - To all generations.
9 Oath - Wherewith he ratified the covenant with Isaac, Gen 26:3.
10 A law - That it might be as firm and irrevocable as a law.
11 Lot - The portion assigned to you by lot.
13 They went - Both in Canaan, where there were seven nations, and in Egypt.
15 Anointed - My prophets, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; who are called God's anointed, because they were consecrated to be his peculiar people, and to be kings and princes in their families. And they are called prophets, because God familiarly conversed with them and revealed his will to them, and by them to others.
16 Staff of bread - Bread, which is the staff or support of our lives.
19 His word - That word or revelation which came first to Pharaoh in a dream, and then to Joseph concerning the interpretation of it. Purged - From those calamities which were cast upon him, and so prepared the way for his release.
23 Ham - Ham was the father of Mizraim, or the Egyptians, Gen 10:6.
25 Turned - That is, suffered them, to be turned.
28 They - Moses and Aaron, who inflicted that plague after Pharaoh had threatened them.
30 Land - Their country. In chambers - Which entered into the chambers. Kings - Of Pharaoh and his sons, and his chief nobles and governors.
31 Coasts - In all their land, even to the utmost borders of it.
37 Feeble - Diseased or unable for his journey: which in so vast a body, and in a people who had been so dreadfully oppressed, was wonderful.
39 Covering - To protect them from the heat of the sun.
40 Quails - He speaks of the first giving of quails, Exo 16:13, which God gave them as a refreshment, notwithstanding their sin in desiring them, which he graciously pardoned. Bread - With manna which came out of the air, commonly called heaven.
41 River - They flowed in channels which God provided for them, and followed the Israelites in their march.
44 Labour - The fruits of their labour; their cities, vineyards, olive - yards.


The foregoing psalm was an history of God's goodness to Israel;

this is an history of their rebellion: against him; probably both

were wrote by David at the same time, as we find the first verse

and the two last in that psalm, which he delivered to Asaph,

1Chron 16:35, &c.

Herein we have the preface, ver. 1 - 5.

The narrative of all of the sins of Israel, aggravated by the great

things God did for them; their provocations at the Red - sea, ver. 6 - 12.

Lusting, ver. 13 - 15.

Mutinying, ver. 16 - 18.

Worshiping the golden calf, ver. 19 - 23.

Murmuring, ver. 24 - 27.

Worshiping Baal - peor, ver. 28 - 31.

Quarreling with Moses, ver, 32, 33.

Mixing with the nations of Canaan, ver. 34 - 39.

God rebuked them, yet saved them from ruin, ver. 40 - 46.

The conclusion, ver. 47, 48.

It begins and ends with Hallelujah.

4 Me - He speaks here in the name, and on the behalf of the whole nation. With - With those favours which thou dost usually and peculiarly give to thy people.
5 See - Enjoy. Chosen - Of thy chosen people; such as are Israelites indeed. Gladness - Such joy as thou hast formerly afforded unto thy beloved nation. Glory - That we may have occasion to glory in God's goodness towards us. Inheritance - In the congregation of thy people.
6 Glory - As our fathers did.
7 At the sea - When those wonders were but newly done, and fresh in memory.
8 Saved them - That he may vindicate his name from the blasphemous reproaches, which would have been cast upon it, if they had been destroyed.
9 Led them - As securely as if they had walked upon the dry land.
13 Soon - Even within three days, Exod 15:22,23. Waited not - They did not wait patiently upon God for supplies, in such manner and time as he thought fit.
14 Lusted - For flesh.
15 Souls - Into their bodies. So their inordinate desire of pampering their bodies, was the occasion of destroying them.
16 The saint - So called, because he was consecrated by God for that sacred office of the priesthood, in which respect all the priests are said to be holy, Lev 21:6 - 8. Hereby he intimates, that their envy and rebellion was not only against Aaron, but against God himself.
19 A calf - When they were but just brought out of Egypt by such wonders, and had seen the plagues of God upon the Egyptian idolaters, and when the law of God was but newly delivered to them in such a tremendous manner.
20 Their glory - God, who was indeed their glory. Into - Into the golden image of an ox or calf, which is so far from feeding his people, as the true God did the Israelites, that he must be fed by them.
23 Breach - God had made a wall about them; but they had made a breach in it by their sins, at which the Lord, who was now justly become their enemy, might enter to destroy them; which he had certainly done, if Moses by his prevailing intercession had not hindered him.
24 Despised - Preferring Egypt, and their former bondage, before it, Numb 14:3,4.
25 The voice - To God's command, that they should boldly enter into it.
26 Lifted up - He sware. Of this dreadful and irrevocable oath of God, see Numb 14:11,12.
27 Overthrow - He sware also (tho' not at the same time) that he would punish their sins, not only in their persons, but in their posterity.
28 Joined - They had communion with him, as God's people have with God in acts of his worship.
31 And - It was accepted and rewarded of God as an act of justice and piety.
37 Devils - They did not worship God as they pretended, but devils in their idols; for those spirits, which were supposed by the Heathen idolaters to inhabit in their images, were not good spirits, but evil spirits, or devils.
43 Counsel - By forsaking God's way, and following their own inventions.
45 Repented - Changed his course and dealing with them.


The psalmist here observes God's providential care of the children of

men in general, and shews how he helps those that are in any distress,

in answer to their prayers.

He instances in banishment and dispersion, ver. 1 - 9.

Captivity and imprisonment, ver. 10 - 16.

Sickness, ver. 17 - 22.

Distress at sea, ver. 23 - 32.

The disposal of families and nations, ver. 33 - 13

3 Gathered - Into their own land.
4 No city - Or rather, no town inhabited, where they might refresh themselves.
6 The Lord - Heb. Unto Jehovah, to the true God. For the Heathens had, many of them, some knowledge of the true God.
7 Forth - Out of the wilderness.
10 Darkness - In dark prisons or dungeons.
12 Heart - The pride and obstinacy of their hearts. Fell - They fell into hopeless miseries.
17 Afflicted - With sickness.
20 Word - His command, or blessing.
32 Exalt him - In public assemblies, and before all persons, as they have opportunity. Elders - The magistrates or rulers; let them not be ashamed nor afraid to speak of God's wonderful works, before the greatest of men.
33 Rivers - Those grounds which are well watered, and therefore fruitful. And so the water - springs, here, and the standing water, ver.35 are taken. Into - Into a dry ground, which is like a parched and barren wilderness.
34 For - He doth not inflict these judgments without cause, but for the punishment of sin in some, and the prevention of it in others.
35 Water - Into a well - watered and fruitful land.
36 Hungry - Poor people who could not provide for themselves.
39 They - These men, who when they are exalted by God, grow insolent and secure. Low - By God's just judgment.
40 Contempt - Renders them despicable. Wander - Banishes them from their own courts and kingdoms, and forces them to flee into desolate wildernesses for shelter.


The five first verses of this psalm are taken out of psalm 57,

the rest out of psalm 60.

David thanks God for personal mercies, ver. 1 - 5.

Prays for national mercies, ver. 6 - 13.

A song or psalm of David.

1 Glory - With my tongue.


David complains of his enemies and appeals to God, ver. 1 - 5.

Foretells their destruction, ver. 6 - 20.

Prays that God would succour him in his low condition, ver. 21 - 29.

Concludes with a joyful hope of deliverance, ver. 30, 31

To the chief musician, A psalm of David.

1 God - The author and matter of all my praises.
4 Adversaries - They requite my love with enmity, as it is explained ver.5.
6 A wicked man - Who will rule him with rigour and cruelty. Satan - To accuse him; for this was the place and posture of accusers in the Jewish courts.
7 Sin - Because it is not from his heart.
10 Desolate places - Into which they are fled for fear and shame.
11 Catch - Heb. ensnare, take away not only by oppression but also by cunning artificers. Stranger - Who hath no right to his goods.
17 Delighted not - In desiring and promoting the welfare of others.
18 Garment - Which a man wears constantly. Like water - Water in the cavity of the belly, between the bowels, is almost certain death. And oil soaking into any of the bones, will soon utterly destroy it.
20 That speak evil against my soul - With design to take away my life.
21 Is good - Above the mercy of all the creatures.
23 When - Towards the evening, when the sun is setting. The locust - Which is easily driven away with every wind.


That this psalm belongs to the Messiah, is abundantly evident both from

the express testimony of the New Testament,

Acts 2:34 1Cor 15:25 Heb 1:13 10:13.

and from the consent of the ancient Hebrew doctors. Of him, it is

directly and immediately to be understood; the spirit of God wisely so

ordering this matter, that it might be a convincing testimony against

the unbelieving Jews, concerning the true Messiah, and concerning

the nature and quality of his kingdom.

His prophetic office, ver. 2.

His priestly office, ver. 4,

His kingly office, ver. 1, 3, 5, 6.

His states of humiliation and exaltation, ver. 7.

A psalm of David.

1 The Lord - God the father. Said - Decreed it from eternity, and in due time published this decree, and actually executed it; which he did when he raised up Christ from the dead, and brought him into his heavenly mansion. Unto - Unto his son the Messiah, whom David designedly calls his Lord, to admonish the whole church, that although he was his son according to his human nature, yet he had an higher nature, and was also his Lord, as being God blessed for ever, and consequently Lord of all things. The Hebrew word Adon is one of God's titles, signifying his power and authority over all things, and therefore is most fitly given to the Messiah, to whom God hath delegated all his power Matt 28:18. Sit - Now take thy rest and the possession of that sovereign kingdom and glory, which by right belongeth to thee; do thou rule with me with equal power and majesty, as thou art God; and with an authority and honour far above all creatures, as thou art man. Make - By my almighty power communicated to thee as God by eternal generation, and vouchsafed to thee as mediator. Enemies - All ungodly men, sin and death, and the devil. Footstool - Thy slaves and vassals.
2 The rod - Thy strong or powerful rod, and the rod is put for his scepter, or kingly power: but as the kingdom of Christ is not carnal, but spiritual, so this scepter is nothing else but his word. Zion - From Jerusalem.
3 People - Thy subjects, shall offer thee as their king and Lord, not oxen or sheep, but themselves, their souls and bodies, as living sacrifices, and as freewill - offerings, giving up themselves to the Lord, 2Cor 8:5, to live to him, and to die for him. The day - When thou shalt take into thy hands the rod of thy strength, and set up thy kingdom in the world. In the beauties - Adorned with the beautiful and glorious robes of righteousness and true holiness. The dew - That is, thy offspring (the members of the Christian church) shall be more numerous than the drops of the morning dew.
4 Sworn - That this priesthood might be made sure and irrevocable.
5 The Lord - God the son; the Lord, who is at thy right - hand. Strike - Shall destroy all those kings who are obstinate enemies to him.
6 Judge - Condemn and punish them. The places - Or, the place of battle. Dead bodies - Of his enemies. Heads - All those princes who oppose him. But this and the like passages are not to be understood grossly, but spiritually, according to the nature of Christ's kingdom.
7 Drink - He shall have a large portion of afflictions, while he is in the way or course of his life, before he comes to that honour of sitting at his father's right - hand. Waters in scripture frequently signify sufferings. To drink of them, signifies to feel or bear them. Therefore - He shall be exalted to great glory and felicity.


This and several of the following psalms seem to have been wrote for

the service of the church in their solemn feasts. It is composed

alphabetically, each sentence beginning with a several letter of the

Hebrew alphabet.

The psalmist here praises God for his works, ver. 1 - 9.

Recommends the fear of God, ver. 10.

2 Sought - Diligently meditated upon.
3 Work - Either all his works, or that eminent branch of those works, his providence towards his people. Righteousness - His justice or faithfulness in performing his word.
4 Remembered - By their own nature, and the lasting benefits flowing from them, which are such as cannot easily be forgotten.
5 Meat - All necessary provisions for their being and well - being.
7 The works - All that he doth on the behalf of his people, or against their enemies. Truth - Are exactly agreeable to his promises, and to justice. Commandments - His laws given to the Israelites, especially the moral law. Sure - Constant and unchangeable.
8 Done - Constituted or ordered.
9 Redemption - The deliverance out of Egypt, which was a type of that higher redemption by Christ. Commanded - Appointed, or established firmly by his power and authority. For ever - Through all successive generations of his people to the end of the world. Reverend - Terrible to his enemies, venerable in his peoples eyes, and holy in all his dealings with all men.
10 The fear - True religion. Beginning - Is the only foundation of, and introduction to, true wisdom.


This also is an alphabetical psalm.

We have here the character and blessedness of the righteous, ver. 1 - 9.

The iniquity of the wicked, ver. 10.

2 Generation - The posterity.
3 Righteousness - The fruit or reward of his righteousness, which is God's blessing upon his estate.
4 Darkness - In the troubles and calamities of life. He - The upright man.
5 Lendeth - Gives freely to some, and lends to others according to the variety of their conditions. Affairs - His domestick affairs. Discretion - Not getting his estate unjustly, nor casting it away prodigally, nor yet withholding it from such as need it.
6 Moved - Though he may for a season be afflicted, yet he shall not be eternally destroyed.
7 Evil tidings - At the report of approaching calamities.
9 Dispersed - His goods, freely and liberally. Righteousness - His liberality, or the reward of it. Ever - What he gives is not lost, but indeed is the only part of his estate, which will abide with him to all eternity.
10 The desire - Either of the misery of good men; or of his own constant prosperity.


We are here exhorted to praise God, ver. 1 - 3.

Particularly for his glory and greatness, ver. 4, 5

And for his grace and goodness, ver. 6 - 9.

6 Humbleth - Who is so high, that it is a wonderful condescention in him to take any notice of his heavenly host, and much more of sinful and miserable men upon earth.
8 Princes - As he did Joseph, David, and others. His people - Who in God's account are far more honourable than the princes of Heathen nations.


This and the four following psalms, the Jews were wont to sing at

the close of the paschal supper.

It is a solemn commemoration of God's delivering Israel, giving them

the law, and water out of the rock, ver. 1 - 8.

2 Judah - Or Israel, one tribe being put for all. Judah he mentions as the chief of all the tribes.
4 The mountains - Horeb and Sinai, two tops of one mountain, and other neighbouring mountains.
7 Tremble - The mountains did more than what was fit at the appearance of the great God.


We are to give glory to God, not to ourselves or idols, ver. 1 - 8.

By trusting in his promise and blessing, ver. 9 - 15.

And by praising him, ver. 16 - 18.

8 Are like them - As void of all sense or reason as their images.
9 Their - Who trust in him.
10 Aaron - You priests and Levites.
11 Ye that fear - All of you who worship the true God, not only Israelites, but even Gentile proselytes.
12 Mindful - In our former straits, and therefore we trust he will still bless us.
13 Both small - Of whatsoever quality, high and low, rich and poor.
16 The Lord's - In a peculiar manner, where he dwelleth in that light and glory, to which no man can approach. Given - As the foregoing verse declares, that God was the creator of heaven and earth, so this asserts that he is also their Lord and governor to dispose of all men and things as he pleases.
17 Silence - Into the place of silence, the grave.


This psalm is a solemn thanksgiving to God.

Wherein the psalmist professes his love to God, for delivering him out

of great straits and dangers, ver. 1 - 8.

Prays for his future protection, and promises to praise him, and to

walk holy before him, 9 - 19.

3 The sorrows - Dangerous and deadly calamities. Pains - Such agonies and horrors, as dying persons use to feel.
7 Rest - Unto a chearful confidence in God.


An exhortation to all nations to praise God for his mercy and truth,

ver. 1, 2.


The form of this psalm seems to be dramatical, and several parts of it

are spoken in the name of several persons; as it is in the book of the

Song of Solomon, and in one part of Ecclesiastes.

David speaks in his own name from the beginning to ver. 22, from

thence to ver. 25, in the name of the people; and thence to ver. 28,

in the name of the priests; and then concludes in his own name.

He calls upon all about him to praise God, ver. 1 - 4.

Encourages himself and others to trust in God, from the experience

he had had of his power and mercy, ver. 5 - 18.

He gives thanks for his advancement to the throne, as it was a figure

of the exaltation of Christ, ver. 19 - 23.

The people, the priests, and the psalmist himself triumph in the

prospect of the Redeemer's kingdom, ver. 24 - 29.

10 Nations - The neighbouring nations, Philistines, Syrians, Ammonites, Moabites, who were stirred up, by the overthrows which David had given some of them, by their jealousy at his growing greatness, and by their hatred against the true religion.
11 Yea - The repetition implies their frequency and fervency in this action.
12 Bees - ln great numbers. Thorns - Which burns fiercely, but quickly spends itself.
13 Thou - O mine enemy. The singular word is here put collectively for all his enemies.
14 Salvation - My Saviour.
15 Doth valiantly - These are the words of that song of praise now mentioned.
16 Exalted - Hath appeared evidently, and wrought powerfully and gloriously.
19 Open - O ye porters, appointed by God for this work. The gates - Of the Lord's tabernacle: where the rule of righteousness was kept and taught, and the sacrifices of righteousness were offered.
20 The righteous - As David was a type of Christ and the temple of heaven, so this place hath a farther prospect than David, and relates to Christ's ascending into heaven, and opening the gates of that blessed temple, both for himself and for all believers.
22 The builders - The commonwealth of Israel and the church of God are here and elsewhere compared to a building, wherein, as the people are the stones, so the princes and rulers are the builders. And as these master - builders rejected David, so their successors rejected Christ. Head stone - The chief stone in the whole building, by which the several parts of the building are upheld and firmly united together. Thus David united all the tribes and families of Israel: and thus Christ united Jews and Gentiles together. And therefore this place is justly expounded of Christ, Mark 12:10 Acts 4:11 Rom 9:32 Eph 2:20. And to him the words agree more properly than to David.
24 Made - Or sanctified as a season never to be forgotten.
25 We - These seem to be the words of the Levites, to whom he spake ver.19.
26 Blessed - We pray that God would bless his person and government. Cometh - To the throne; or from his Father into the world: who is known by the name of him that cometh or was to come, and of whom this very word is used, Gen 49:10 Isa 35:4. Name - By commission from him. We - We who are the Lord's ministers attending upon him in his house, and appointed to bless in his name, Numb 6:23 Deut 10:8. So these are the words of the priests.
27 The Lord - Or, The mighty God, as this name of God signifies, and as he shewed himself to be by this, his wonderful work. Who - Who hath scattered our dark clouds, and put us into a state of peace, and safety, and happiness. The horns - These are supposed to he made for this very use, that the beasts should be bound and killed there. These three last verses are David's words.


Because this psalm was very large, and the matter of it of the greatest

importance, the psalmist thought fit to divide it into two and twenty

several parts, according to the number of the Hebrew letters, that

he might both prevent tediousness, and fix it in the memory. Each part

consists of eight verses. All the verses of the first part beginning

with Aleph, all the verses of the second with Beth, and so on.

It is observable, that the word of God is here called by the names of

law, statutes, precepts or commandments, judgments, ordinances,

righteousness, testimonies, way and word. By which variety, he

designed to express the nature and perfection of God's word. It is

called his word, as revealed by him to us; his way, as

prescribed by him for us to walk in; his law, as binding us to

obedience; his statutes, as declaring his authority of giving us

laws; his precepts as directing our duty; his ordinances, as

ordained by him; his righteousness, as exactly agreeable to God's

righteous nature and will; his judgments, as proceeding from the

great judge of the world, and being his judicial sentence to which all

men must submit; and his testimonies, as it contains the witness of

God's will, and of man's duty. And there is but one of these one

hundred and seventy six verses, in which one or other of these titles

is not found. The general scope and design of this psalm is, to

magnify the law and make it honourable: to shew the excellency and

usefulness of divine revelation, and recommend it to us, by the

psalmist's own example, who speaks by experience of the benefits of it,

for which he praises God, and earnestly prays for the continuance of

God's grace, to direct and quicken him in his way.

6 Respect - A due respect, which implies hearty affection, diligent study, and constant practice. To all - So as not to allow myself in any known sin, or in the neglect of any known duty.
7 When - When by thy good spirit I shall he more fitly instructed in the meaning of thy word.
8 Forsake me not - For then I shall fall into the foulest sins.
9 A young man - Or, any man. But he names the young man, because such are commonly void of wisdom and experience, and exposed to many and great temptations. Cleanse - Purge himself from all filthiness of flesh and spirit.
11 Hid - I have laid it up in my mind like a choice treasure, to be ready upon all occasions to counsel, quicken or caution me.
17 Live - Safely and comfortably.
18 Open - Enlighten my mind by the light of thy Holy Spirit, and dispel all ignorance and error. Behold - Those great and marvellous depths of Divine wisdom and goodness, and those profound mysteries of Christ, and God's grace to mankind, and of that everlasting state, which are not to be known but by Divine illumination.
19 A stranger - I am not here as in my home, but as a pilgrim travelling homeward in a strange land. Commandments - Which are my chief support and guide in my pilgrimage.
20 Breaketh - Faints, as it frequently does, when a thing vehemently desired is delayed. Judgments - To a more sound knowledge and serious practice of them.
21 The proud - Obstinate and presumptuous sinners, who sin with an high hand. Err - Or, wander, knowingly or wilfully.
25 The dust - I am in danger of present death: I am like one laid in the grave. Quicken - Preserve my life, or raise me out of the dust. Word - According to thy promise.
26 My ways - My sins; and all my cares, and fears, and troubles.
27 Understand - More throughly.
28 Melteth - Like wax before the fire.
29 Grant me - Vouchsafe me an accurate knowledge of thy word, and let me govern myself by it in all things.
30 Laid - Or, set before me as a mark to aim at; as a rule to direct me.
32 Run - I will obey thy precepts with all readiness, fervency, and diligence. Enlarge - When thou shalt replenish my heart with wisdom, and love to thee and thy law.
36 Covetousness - He mentions this in particular, because it is most opposite to God's testimonies, and does most commonly hinder men from receiving his word, and from profiting by it: and because it is most pernicious, as being the root of all evil.
37 Vanity - The vain things of this present world, such as riches, honours, pleasures: from beholding them, with desire or affection. Quicken - Make me lively, vigorous and fervent in thy service.
38 Stablish - Confirm and perform thy promises.
39 I fear - For my instability in thy ways; which in respect to my own weakness, I have great cause to fear.
40 Longed - After a more solid knowledge and constant performance of them. In - According to thy faithfulness.
43 Take not - Do not deal so with me, that I shall be ashamed to mention thy word. Judgments - In thy word.
45 At liberty - Enjoy great freedom and comfort in thy ways.
48 Lift up - To receive and embrace thy precepts and promises.
49 Thy word - Thy promises.
52 Judgments - Thy ancient dispensations to the children of men in punishing the ungodly.
53 Horror - A mixed passion, made up of abhorrence of their sins, and dread and sorrow at the consideration of the judgments of God coming upon them.
54 The house - In this world, wherein I am a stranger and pilgrim, as all my fathers were.
55 Thy name - Thy holy nature and attributes, thy blessed word, and thy wonderful works. In the night - When darkness causes fear in others, I took pleasure in remembering thee; and when others gave themselves up to sleep, my thoughts and affections were working towards thee.
56 This - This comfortable remembrance.
57 Said - I have professed and owned it.
59 Thought - I seriously considered both my former courses, and my duty in all my future actions.
61 Robbed - Done me many injuries, for my respect to thy law.
66 Judgment - Whereby I may rightly discern between truth and falsehood. Knowledge - A spiritual experimental knowledge.
70 Fat - They are stupid and insensible.
74 Glad - For the encouragement they have by my example to trust in God. See me - Alive and in safety. Word - In thy promise, and have not been disappointed of my hope.
75 Judgments - Thy corrections. Of faithfulness - In pursuance of thy promises, and in order to my good.
79 Known - Loved and practised them.
80 Sound - That I may love and obey them sincerely, constantly, and universally.
81 Fainteth - With long desire and earnest expectation.
83 Bottle - A leathern bottle. My natural moisture is dryed and burnt up.
84 The days - The days of my life. I have but a little while to live; give me some respite before I die.
85 Who - Who have no respect to thy law.
86 Faithful - Just and true.
89 In heaven - With thee in thy heavenly habitation.
91 They - The heaven and the earth. Ordinances - As thou hast appointed. For - All things are subject to thy power and pleasure.
96 Perfection - Of the greatest and most perfect enjoyments in this world. Commandment - Thy word; one part of it being put for the whole. Broad - Or, large, both for extent, and for continuance: it is useful to all persons: it is of everlasting truth and efficacy; it will never deceive those who trust to it, as all worldly things will, but will make men happy both here and for ever.
100 Because - The practice of religion is the best way to understand it.
102 Taught me - By thy blessed spirit, illuminating my mind, and working upon my heart.
108 Offerings - The sacrifices of prayer and praise.
109 Is - Exposed to perpetual danger.
118 Deceit - Their deceitful devices, shall bring that destruction upon themselves which they design for others.
121 Judgment, &c. - Just judgment.
122 Surety - Do thou undertake and plead my cause.
123 The word - For the performance of thy faithful or merciful promise.
126 To work - To put forth thy power for the restraint of evil - doers. They - The wicked. Made void - Or, abrogated thy law, have openly cast off its authority.
127 Therefore - Because the general apostacy of others makes this duty more necessary.
129 Wonderful - In regard of the deep mysteries, the most excellent directions, and the exceeding great and precious promises of God contained in them.
131 Panted - I thirst after thy precepts, and pursue them eagerly.
133 Steps - My motions and actions.
136 Rivers - Plentiful tears, witness of my deep sorrow for God's dishonour, and for the miseries which sinners bring upon themselves.
140 Pure - Without the least mixture of falsehood.
142 Everlasting - The same in all ages and places.
143 Trouble - Outward troubles and anguish of spirit.
148 Watches - The middle watch, which was set in the middle of the night; and the morning watch, which was set some hours before the dawning of the day.
149 Judgment - According to thy word.
150 Nigh - To me, they are at hand and ready to seize upon me. Are far - They cast away from them all thoughts of thy law.
152 Of old - By long experience. Founded - Thou hast established them upon everlasting foundations.
160 The beginning - From the beginning of the world.
161 But - But I feared thine offence and displeasure more than their wrath.
164 Seven times - Many times; a certain number being put for an uncertain.
165 Offend - Heb. they shall have no stumbling - block, at which they shall stumble and fall into mischief.
175 Judgments - Thy word or testimonies, which are the only ground of my hope in thy help.


David prays against lying tongues, and denounces judgment against them,

ver. 1 - 4.

Complains of his wicked and unpeaceable neighbours, ver. 5 - 7.

A song of degrees. Title of the psalm. Of degrees - Or, of accents, as the word properly signifies. This title is given to this and the fourteen following psalms, probably because they were sung upon the fifteen degrees, steps, or stairs of the temple, which the Jewish writers mention.

4 Arrows - The wrath and vengeance of the mighty God, which in scripture is often compared to arrows, and here to coals of juniper, which burn very fiercely and retain their heat for a long time.
5 Mesech - Mesech and Kedar are two sorts of people often mentioned in scripture, and reckoned amongst the barbarous nations. But their names are here to be understood metaphorically. And so he explains himself in the next verse.


David assures himself of help from God, ver. 1, 2.

He assures others of it, ver. 3 - 8.

A song of degrees.

1 Hills - To Sion and Moriah, which are called the holy mountains.
5 Shade - To keep thee from the burning heat of the sun.
6 Smite - With excessive heat. Moon - With that cold and moisture which come into the air by it. Intemperate heats and colds are the springs of many diseases.


This psalm seems to have been wrote for the use of the people, when

they came to Jerusalem at the three solemn feasts.

David here shews the joy with which they were to go up to Jerusalem,

ver. 1, 2.

The esteem they were to have of it, ver. 3 - 5.

The prayers they were to make for its welfare, ver, 6 - 9.

A song of degrees of David.

4 The tribes - Whom God has chosen to be his people. Unto - Unto the ark, called the testimony, because of the tables of the covenant laid up in it, which are called God's testimony, and the tables of the testimony. And this is called the testimony of, or to Israel, because it was given by God to them. Give thanks - To worship God; this one eminent part thereof being put for all the rest.
5 Judgment - The supreme courts of justice for ecclesiastical and civil affairs. Thrones - The royal throne allotted by God to David and to his posterity, and the inferior seats of justice under his authority.


The psalmist expresses and prays for deliverance from trouble,

ver. 1 - 4.

A song of degrees.

2 Look - For supply of their wants, and for help and defence against their oppressors. Until - Until he help and save us.


David describes the danger he and his people had been in, ver. 1 - 5.

Blesses God for delivering them, ver. 6 - 8.

A song of degrees of David.

5 The proud - Our enemies, compared to proud waters, for their great multitude and swelling rage.


The safety of them that trust in God, and the fate of the wicked,

ver. 1 - 5.

A song of degrees.

3 The rod - Their power and authority. Not rest - Not continue long. The lot - Upon the habitations and persons of good men. Lest - Lest they should be driven to indirect courses to relieve themselves.
5 Lead them - Unto sinful courses. Israel - Upon the true Israel of God.


This psalm was probably composed by Ezra, at the return of Israel

from Babylon. Those who are returned, are called upon to be

thankful; those who still remain there, are prayed for and encouraged,

ver. 1 - 6.

A song of degrees.

1 Turned - Brought the captive Israelites out of Babylon into their own land. Dream - We were so surprized and astonished.
4 Turn - As thou hast brought us home, bring also the rest of our brethren. As - As thou art pleased sometimes to send floods of water into dry and barren grounds, such as the southern parts of Canaan were.


We must trust in God for success in all enterprizes, ver. 1, 2.

And for children, ver. 3 - 5.

A song of degrees of Solomon.

1 Build - Assist and bless those that build it.
2 You - Builders, or watchmen. To sit - To use constant and unwearied diligence. So - By his blessing. Giveth - Freely, without that immoderate toiling, wherewith others pursue it.
3 Children - The chief of these blessings. Heritage - Only from God's blessing, even as an inheritance is not the fruit of a man's own labour, but the gift of God.
4 Youth - These he prefers before other children, because they live longest with their parents, and to their comfort and support, whereas children born in old age seldom come to maturity before their parents death.
5 Full - Who hath a numerous issue. Shall speak - They shall courageously plead their cause in courts of judicature, not fearing to be crushed by the might of their adversaries.


The happiness of them that fear God, ver. 1 - 6.

A song of degrees.

3 Olive - plants - Numerous, growing and flourishing.


The people of God commemorate their deliverance out of sore

afflictions, ver. 1 - 4.

The destruction of their enemies, ver. 5 - 8.

A song of degrees.

1 From my youth - From the time that I was a people.
4 Righteous - Faithful or merciful. The cords - Wherewith the plow was drawn. By these cords he understands all their plots and endeavours.
6 House - tops - Which there were flat. Which - Having no deep root, never comes to maturity. And so all their designs shall be abortive.
8 The blessing - Which was an usual salutation given by passengers to reapers: so the meaning is, it never continues 'till the harvest comes.


The psalmist confessing his sins, expresses his hope in God, ver. 1 - 6.

And exhorts Israel to hope in him, ver.7, 8.

A song of degrees.

3 Mark - Observe them accurately and punish them as they deserve. Stand - At thy tribunal.
4 Forgiveness - Thou art able and ready to forgive repenting sinners. Feared - Not with a slavish, but with a childlike fear. This mercy of thine is the foundation of all religion, without which men would desperately proceed in their impious courses.
5 I wait - That he would pardon my sins.
6 They - Whether soldiers that keep the night - watches in an army, or the priests or Levites who did so in the temple.
7 Israel - Every true Israelite. Plenteous - Abundantly sufficient for all persons who accept it upon God's terms.


David testifies his humility, and exhorts Israel to trust in God,

ver. 1 - 3.

A song of degrees of David.

2 Surely - When my mind was provoked. Weaned - Wholly depending upon God's providence, as the poor helpless infant, relies upon its mother for support.


Probably this psalm was wrote by Solomon to be sung at the

dedication of the temple, of which he desires God would come and take

possession, ver. 8, 9, 10.

With these words he concluded his prayer, 2Chron 6:41,42.

He pleads David's piety towards God, ver. 1 - 7.

And God's promise to David, ver. 11 - 18.

A song of degrees.

1 Afflictions - All his sufferings for thy sake.
5 Until - Until I have raised an house in which the ark may be put.
6 It - Of the ark. Ephratah - In the tribe of Ephraim, which was called also Ephratah. Found it - Afterwards we found it in Kirjath - jearim, which signifies a city of woods, in the territory whereof the ark was seated for twenty years.
7 Tabernacles - Into his temple. Footstool - The ark, is often said to sit between the cherubim, which were above the ark.
8 Rest - Into thy resting place, the temple so called, Isa 66:1, where thou hast now a fixed habitation. The ark - The seat of thy powerful and glorious presence.
10 David's sake - In regard of thy promises vouchsafed to David. Turn not - Cast me not out of thy presence. Of - Of me whom thou hast anointed to be king over thy people.
16 Salvation - With thy saving graces and blessings.
17 There - In Jerusalem. To bud - His power and glory to flourish. A lamp - A successor to continue for ever in his family, as this phrase is expounded 1Kings 11:36 15:4, and particularly one eminent and glorious light, namely, the Messiah.


The happiness of brotherly love, ver. 1 - 3.

A song of degrees of David.

2 Ointment - It is no less grateful and refreshing than that oil which was poured forth upon Aaron's head at the time of his consecration to the priestly office. Skirts - Not to the lower skirt or bottom of his sacerdotal garment, but to the upper skirt of it, or the mouth of it, as the Hebrew word properly signifies.
3 Zion - It is as desirable as the dew which falls upon mount Hermon, nay, as desirable as that heavenly dew of God's ordinances and graces which he hath commanded to fall upon the mountains of Zion and Moriah, and others which are round about Jerusalem. There - Where brethren live in peace and unity.


In this psalm the priests or Levites who watched all night in the

temple, exhort one another, and pray for one another, ver. 1 - 3.

A song of degrees.

1 Servant - Peculiarly so called, priests and Levites. Night - Not only by day, but also by night, when their watch was more necessary. Stand - Serve or minister.
3 Thee - Thee whosoever thou art who dost faithfully perform the duty here commanded.


An exhortation to praise God for his greatness and mighty works,

ver. 1 - 7.

For destroying his enemies, ver. 8 - 11.

For his mercy toward Israel, ver. 12 - 14.

The vanity of idols, ver. 15 - 18.

Another exhortation to praise God, ver. 19 - 20.

2 Ye - Ye priest and Levites.
6 Seas - In the visible seas, and in the invisible depths both of the earth and of the waters.
7 From - From all parts of the earth, from one end to another. Rain - An eminent instance of his good providence.
14 Judge - Will in due time plead the cause of his people. Repent - He will recall that severe sentence which for their sins he had passed upon them.


We must praise God as great and good in himself, ver. 1 - 3.

As the Creator of the world, ver. 4 - 9.

As Israel's God, ver. 10 - 22.

As our Redeemer, ver. 23, 24.

As God over all, ver. 25, 26.

2 The God of gods - Who is infinitely superior to all that are called gods, whether angels, or princes, or idols.
22 Israel - He speaks of all that people as of one man, because they were united together in one body in the worship of God.
25 Food - To all living creatures. For which God deserves great praises, which the psalmist teaches us to render to God for them, because those who are most concerned, either cannot, or do not perform this duty.


Probably this psalm was wrote toward the end of the Babylonish

captivity. Herein the captives complain of the scoffs of their

enemies, yet remember Jerusalem, and foresee the downfall of

Babylon, ver. 1 - 9.

1 Sat - The usual posture of mourners.
2 Harps - Harps are here put for all instruments of musick.
3 A song - Such songs as you used to sing in the temple of Zion.
4 The Lord's - Those songs which were appointed by God to be sung only in his service.
6 If - If I do not value Jerusalem's prosperity more than all other delights.
7 The day - In the time of its destruction.
8 Happy - As being God's instrument to vindicate his honour, and execute his just judgments.


David praises God for his goodness, and foretells that other kings

will praise him, ver. 1 - 5.

He rejoices in hope of still greater blessings, ver. 6 - 8.

A psalm of David.

1 The gods - Before kings and princes.
2 Temple - Where the ark was. He was not permitted to enter into it. Magnified - For thou hast glorified thy word or promise unto me more than any other of thy glorious perfections.
4 The kings - A prophecy of the calling of the Gentiles. Hear - The gospel preached among then.
5 The ways - His wonderful counsel and gracious providences.
8 Perfect - Will finish the great work of my deliverance. Forsake not - Or, do not give over, the work of my salvation, which is thus far advanced, not by any human help, but by thy power and providence.


This psalm is, by many of the Jewish doctors, esteemed the most

excellent in the whole book.

The omniscience of God is here asserted, ver. 1 - 6.

Proved by two arguments; That he is every where present, ver. 7 - 12.

And that he made us, ver. 13 - 16.

This may fill us with pleasing admiration of God, ver. 17, 18.

With an holy hatred of sin, ver. 19 - 22.

And with an holy satisfaction in our own integrity, ver. 23, 24.

To the chief musician, A psalm of David.

2 Afar off - Thou knowest what my thoughts will be in such and such circumstances, long before I know it, yea from all eternity.
3 Compassest - Thou discernest every step I take. It is a metaphor from soldiers besieging their enemies, and setting watches round about them.
5 Beset me - With thy all - seeing providence. And laid - Thou keepest me, as it were with a strong hand, in thy sight and under thy power.
6 I cannot - Apprehend in what manner thou dost so presently know all things.
8 Hell - If I could hide myself in the lowest parts of the earth.
9 The wings - If I should flee from east to west: for the sea being the western border of Canaan, is often put for the west in scripture. And wings are poetically ascribed to the morning here, as they are elsewhere to the sun, and to the winds.
16 Imperfect - When I was first conceived. Book - In thy counsel and providence, by which thou didst contrive and effect this great work, according to that model which thou hadst appointed.
17 Thoughts - Thy counsels on my behalf. Thou didst not only form me at first, but ever since my conception and birth, thy thoughts have been employed for me.
18 Them - Thy wonderful counsels and works on my behalf come constantly into my mind.
22 Perfect hatred - See the difference between the Jewish and the Christian spirit!


David prays and hopes for deliverance from his enemies, ver. 1 - 7.

Foretells their destruction, ver. 8 - 13.

To the chief musician, A psalm of David.

3 Tongues - Using words as sharp and piercing as the sting of a serpent.
9 Mischief - The mischief which they design against me, shall fall upon themselves.
10 Coals - Divine vengeance, which is compared to coals of fire.
13 Dwell - Shall constantly enjoy thy gracious and powerful presence.


David prays for acceptance and assistance, ver. 1 - 6.

For the deliverance of himself and friends, ver. 7 - 10.

A psalm of David.

4 Incline not - Suffer it not to be inclined. Heart - Keep me not only from wicked speeches, but from all evil motions of my heart. Dainties - The pleasures or advantages which they gain by their wickedness.
5 Smite - By reproofs. Break - Not hurt, but heal and greatly refresh me. Calamities - In the calamities of those righteous persons who reproved him. When they came into such calamities as those wherein he was involved he would pity them and pray for them.
6 Judges - The chief of mine enemies. Overthrown - Or, cast down headlong by thine exemplary vengeance. Hear - Hearken unto my counsels and offers which now they despise.
7 Our bones - Our case is almost as hopeless as of those who are dead, and whose bones are scattered in several places.


David complains to God and trusts in him, ver. 1 - 7

Maschil of David; A prayer when he was in the cave.

3 Knowest - So as to direct me to it. My path - What paths I should chuse whereby I might escape.
4 Right - hand - The place where the patron or assistant used to stand.
5 Portion - Even in this life.
7 Prison - Set me at liberty. Compass - Shall flock to me from all parts, to rejoice and bless God with me and for me.


David complains and prays for pardon and help, ver. 1 - 12.

A psalm of David.

2 Justified - Upon terms of strict justice.
3 For - This is not a reason of what he last said, but an argument to enforce his petition delivered, ver.1. Soul - My life; nothing less will satisfy him. Dead - I am in as hopeless a condition in the eye of man, as those that have lain long in the grave.
5 The days - What thou hast done for thy servants in former times.
6 As land - Thirsteth for rain.
8 Morning - Seasonably and speedily.


David blesses God for his mercies, ver. 1 - 4.

Prays against his enemies, ver. 5 - 8.

Promises to praise him, ver.9 - 11.

The happiness of those who serve God, ver. 12 - 15.

A psalm of David.

2 Subdued - Who hath disposed my peoples hearts to receive and obey me as their king.
5 Come - To help me. Smoke - As Sinai did at thy glorious appearance, Exod 19:18. This is a figurative and poetical description of God's coming to take vengeance upon his enemies.
7 Strange children - Either of the Heathen nations: or of the rebellious Israelites.
8 Vanity - Vain brags and threatenings which shall come to nothing. Falsehood - Deceiving themselves, by being unable to do what they designed; and others, by not giving them that help which they promised.
12 That - This mercy I beg not only for my own sake, but for the sake of thy people, that they may enjoy those blessings which thou hast promised them; and particularly, that our sons, who are the strength and hopes of a nation, may be like plants, flourishing and growing in height and strength, as plants do in their youth; for when they grow old, they wither and decay. Cornerstone - Strong and beautiful.
14 Breaking in - Of enemies invading the land, or assaulting our cities, and making breaches in their walls. Going out - Of our people, either out of the cities to fight with an invading enemy: or out of the land into captivity.


This also is an alphabetical psalm.

In it David praises God for his greatness, ver. 1 - 7.

For his goodness and everlasting kingdom, ver. 8 - 13.

For his providence, ver. 14 - 16.

For his mercy to his servants, ver. 17 - 21.

David's psalm of praise.

14 All - All that look up to him for help.
15 All - Of all living creatures. Wait - Expect their supplies wholly from thy bounty. Expectation is here figuratively ascribed to brute creatures.
18 Nigh - To answer their prayers. In truth - With an upright heart.


The psalmist praises God, and exhorts all to trust in him alone,

ver. 1 - 5.

Because of his power, faithfulness and everlasting kingdom, ver. 6 - 10.

4 That day - As soon as ever he is dead. Thoughts - All his designs and endeavours either for himself or for others.
6 For ever - Both because he liveth for ever to fulfil his promises, and because he is eternally faithful.


The psalmist praises God for his care over the church, ver. 1 - 14.

His government over all, ver. 15 - 18.

His giving his word to Israel, ver. 19, 20.

4 Calleth them - He exactly knows them as we do those whom we can call by name.
9 Ravens - Which he mentions because they were most contemptible, especially to the Jews, to whom they were unclean: and because they are not only neglected by men, but also forsaken by their dams as soon as ever they can fly, and so are wholly left to the care of Divine providence.
10 Delighteth not - As if he needed either the one or the other for the accomplishment of his designs.
13 Thy gates - Thy strength consists not in thy walls, and gates, and bars, but in his protection.
14 Borders - In all thy land, even to its utmost borders.
15 Commandment - Which is sufficient without any instruments to execute whatsoever pleaseth him. Swiftly - The thing is done without delay.
16 Like wool - Not only in colour and shape, and softness, but also in use, keeping the fruits of the earth warm. Ashes - In colour and smallness of parts, as also in its burning quality.
17 Ice - Great hail - stones, which are of an icy nature, and are cast forth out of the clouds, like morsels or fragments.


An exhortation to all creatures in heaven and earth, man especially,

to praise God, ver. 1 - 14.

4 Heavens of heavens - Ye highest heavens, the place of God's throne. Waters - Ye clouds which are above a part of the heavens.
6 Established - He hath made them constant and incorruptible, not changeable, as the things of the lower world. A decree - Concerning their continuance.
7 Dragons - Either serpents, which hide in the deep caverns of the earth; or whales, and other sea - monsters, which dwell in the depths of the sea.
8 Fire - Lightnings and other fireworks of the air. Vapour - Or, fumes: hot exhalations. Fulfilling his word - Executing his commands, either for the comfort or punishment of the inhabitants of the earth.
13 Above - Above all the glories which are in earth and in heaven.
14 The horn - In scripture commonly denotes strength, victory, glory, and felicity.


An exhortation to praise God for his love to his people, ver. 1 - 5.

And for enabling them to overcome their enemies, ver. 6 - 9.

4 The Lord - He rejoiceth over them to do them good. Beautify - Heb. adorn, make them amiable and honourable in the eyes of the world, who now hate and despise them. The meek - All true Israelites are such.
5 In glory - For the honour which God putteth upon them. Beds - By night as well as by day.
7 Vengeance - For all their cruelties and injuries towards God's people. This was literally accomplished by David upon the Philistines, Ammonites, Syrians and other neighbouring nations.
9 Written - Appointed and declared in the holy scripture.


An exhortation to praise God with all sorts of musical instruments,

ver. 1 - 6.

1 Sanctuary - In his temple. The firmament - In heaven: there let the blessed angels praise him.
6 Also - Every living creature in heaven and in earth.

This document (last modified October 01, 1997) from