Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chapter V
Chapter VI
Chapter VII
Chapter VIII
Chapter IX
Chapter X
Chapter XI
Chapter XII
Chapter XIII
Chapter XIV
Chapter XV
Chapter XVI
Chapter XVII
Chapter XVIII
Chapter XIX
Chapter XX
Chapter XXI
Chapter XXII
Chapter XXIII
Chapter XXIV
Chapter XXV
Chapter XXVI
Chapter XXVII
Chapter XXVIII
Chapter XXIX
Chapter XXX
Chapter XXXI
Chapter XXXII
Chapter XXXIII
Chapter XXXIV
Chapter XXXV
Chapter XXXVI
Chapter XXXVII
Chapter XXXIX
Chapter XL
Chapter XLI
Chapter XLII
Chapter XLIII
Chapter XLIV
Chapter XLV
Chapter XLVI
Chapter XLVII
Chapter XLVIII
Chapter XLIX
Chapter L
Chapter LI
Chapter LII

It was the great unhappiness of this prophet, to be a physician to, but that could not save, a dying state, their disease still prevailing against the remedy; and indeed no wonder that all things were so much out of order, when the book of the law had been wanting above sixty years. He was called to be a teacher in his youth, in the days of good Josiah, being sanctified and ordained by God to his prophetical office from his mother's womb, chap.1:5, in a very evil time, though the people afterward proved much worse upon the death of that good king. He setting himself against the torrent of the corruptions of the times, was always opposed, and unkindly treated by his ungrateful country - men, as also by false prophets, and the priests, princes, and people, who encouraged all their impieties and unrighteousness: at length he threatened their destruction and captivity by the Chaldeans, which he lived to see, but foretells their return after seventy years; all which accordingly came to pass. He also, notwithstanding his dreadful threatenings, intermixes divers comfortable promises of the Messiah, and the days of the gospel; he denounces also heavy judgments against the Heathen nations, that had afflicted God's people, both such as were near, and also more remote, as Egypt, the Philistines, Moab, Edomites, Ammonites, Damascus, Kedar, Hazor, Elam, but especially Babylon herself, that is made so great a type of the Anti - Christian Babylon in the New Testament. Upon the murder of Gedaliah, whom the Chaldeans had made governor of Judea, he was forcibly against his will carried into Egypt, where (after he had prophesied from first to last between forty and fifty years) he probably died; some say he was stoned.

Whatever else we hear mentioned of his writings, they are either counterfeit as the prophecies of Baruch, &c, or it is likely we have the sum of them in this book, though possibly some of his sermons might have had some enlargements in that roll, which by his appointment, was written by Baruch, chap. 36:2, &c.

Chapter I

The pedigree, time, and calling of Jeremiah, confirmed against his excuses, ver. 1 - 10. His visions of an almond - rod and seething pot, ver. 11 - 14. His heavy message against Judah, ver. 15, 16. God promises him his assistance, ver. 17 - 19.

1 Anathoth - Was a city three miles from Jerusalem, allotted out of the tribe of Benjamin for the priests.
2 The word - That commission from God that authorized him to his prophetic work, for the space of forty - one years successively in Judea, viz. from the 13th year of Josiah to the 11th year of Zedekiah, besides the time that he prophesied in Egypt. In the days - During his reign. Thirteenth - By which it appears that Jeremiah prophesied the last eighteen years of Josiah's reign; for he reigned thirty - one years, 2Kings 22:1.
3 It - The word of the Lord. Jehoiakim - Called at first by Josiah, Eliakim. Jehoahaz and Jehoiakin, whereof the former reigned before him, the latter succeeded, are conceived not to be mentioned, because they reigned each of them but three months, and therefore not considerable. Of Jerusalem - The inhabitants of Jerusalem, under Zedekiah, during all which time Jeremiah prophesied. Captive - This does not terminate the time of his prophecies; for he prophesied also both in Judea, and in Egypt afterwards: but only relates to what he prophesied while the city and temple were standing, the rest seeming to be added as a supplement. Fifth month - Of that present year; for, tho' the year end not at the fifth month, yet it might end the year of Zedekiah's reign, because he might begin his reign at the fifth month of the year.
4 Then - When he was first called to his office.
5 I sanctified - I ordained thee for this public service. He speaks thus to Jeremiah, not to the other prophets, because he stood in need of greater encouragement than they, both in respect of the tenderness of his years, and the difficulties which he was to encounter with. The nations - To other nations besides the Jews.
7 Thou shalt speak - Fear not, I will make thee eloquent and courageous.
9 Then - God having excited the prophet by command and promise, now in a vision confirms him, either by the hand of an angel, or by himself in some visible shape.
10 The kingdoms - Having now received his commission, he is directed to whom he is to go; to the greatest, not only single persons, but whole nations, as the Babylonians, Persians, and Egyptians. To pull down - That is, to prophecy that I will pull down; which I will as certainly effect, as if thou hadst done it thyself: for, according to scripture - usage, the prophets are said to do that which they foretell shall come to pass. To plant - Metaphors taken from architects and gardeners: either the former words relate to the enemies of God, and the latter to his friends; or rather to both conditionally: if they repent, he will build them up, he will increase their families, and settle them in the land; if they do not, he will root them up, and pull them down.
11 Came unto me - This and the boiling caldron, ver.13, is thought to be at the same time, and in the same vision, when he was first appointed to the work. Almond - tree - That had leaves, and probably blossoms on it like Aaron's. This is a tree that blossoms early, and speedily, and so it may point at either God's readiness, to smite, ver.12, or Israel's ripeness to be smitten; this rod being like a portentous comet, shewing to Jeremiah the miseries that were at hand, at the death of Josiah, which soon followed this vision, the taxing them by Pharaoh Necho, presently after the breaking in of the Chaldees, Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites, and then the Babylonian captivity.
12 Well seen - Or thou hast seen and judged right. Hasten - Word for word, I will almond - tree it, that is, I will be upon them speedily, in a short time. My word - My threatening against Judah and its inhabitants.
13 Seething - Pot - I see a pot coming, meaning the Babylonian army, who would besiege Jerusalem as a fire plays round the pot, when it is to be made boil; and reduce the inhabitants to miserable extremities. Face - Or front of the pot, or furnace, the place where the fire was put in, or blowed up to make it boil. North - Indicating from whence their misery should come, namely, from Chaldea, which lay north from Jerusalem.
14 North - From Babylon.
15 The families - Those nations that were under one lord. Kingdoms - The Babylonians, and their assistants; the Medes also being in confederacy with them, whose king's daughter Nebuchadnezzar married. His throne - Their seats, pavilions or tents shall be pitched, which shall be as so many thrones. Entering - Of the gates, or way leading to them.
17 Gird up - It is a speech taken from the custom of the countries where they wore long garments; and therefore they girt them up about them, that they might not hinder them in any work that required expedition. Consume thee - Lest I destroy thee even in their sight, to become their reproach.
18 This whole land - All its inhabitants in general; intimating, that though men of all degrees should set themselves against him, yet God would support him against their all, and would carry him thro' his work, tho' his troubles would not be only great, but long; passing thro' several king's reigns.

Chapter II

God's numerous and continued mercies render the Jews in their idolatry inexcusable, and unparalleled in any nation; and themselves the causes if their calamities, ver. 1 - 19. Their gross idolatry, ver. 20 - 28. Incorrigibleness, bloodshedding, and hypocrisy, ver. 29 - 37.

2 Go - From Anathoth to Jerusalem. Remember - I remind thee of the kindness that was between us. The love - When I entered into covenant with thee at the giving of the law. Wilderness - I took such care of thee, in the howling wilderness, a land that was not sown.
3 Holiness - A people dedicated to God. As - As the first fruits were holy to God, so was Israel. Devour - All that were injurious to him. Offend - Were liable to punishment. Evil - Evil was inflicted on them from the Lord, as upon the Egyptians, Amalekites, Midianites, Canaanites.
5 Vanity - Idols. Vain - Fools; senseless as the stocks and stones that they made their idols of.
6 Neither - They never concerned themselves about what God had done for them, which should have engaged them to cleave to him. Of drought - Where they had no water but by miracle. Death - Bringing forth nothing that might support life, therefore nothing but death could be expected; and besides, yielding so many venomous creatures, as many enemies that they went in continual danger of. No man dwelt - As having in it no accommodation for travellers, much less for habitation.
7 My land - Consecrated to my name; by your idols and many other abominations.
8 They - They that should have taught others, knew as little as they, or regarded as little, who are said here to handle the law, the priests and Levites, who were the ordinary teachers of the law. Pastors - Either teachers, or kings and princes. Prophets - They that should have taught the people the true worship of God, were themselves worshippers of Baal.
9 Plead - By his judgments, and by his prophets, as he did with their fathers, that they may be left without excuse. Children - God often visits the iniquities of the parents upon the children, when they imitate their parents.
10 Of Chittim - All the isles in the Mediterranean sea, with the neighbouring coasts; for the Hebrews call all people, that separated from them by the sea, islanders, because they came to them by shipping. Kedar - Arabia that lay east - south - east of Judea, as Chittim did more north or north - west; go from north to south, east to west, and make the experiment; look to Chittim the most civilized, or Kedar the most barbarous, yet neither have changed their gods.
11 Their glory - The true God, who was their glory; and who always did them good, giving them cause to glory in him.
12 O ye heavens - A pathetical expression, intimating that it is such a thing, that the very inanimate creatures, could they be sensible of it, would be astonished. Be desolate - Lose your brightness, as the sun seemed to do when Christ suffered.
13 Of living waters - A metaphor taken from springs, called living, because they never cease, or intermit; such had God's care and kindness been over them. Cisterns - Either their idols, which are empty vain things, that never answer expectation, or the Assyrians, and Egyptians. Indeed all other supports, that are trusted to besides God, are but broken vessels.
14 A slave - Slave is here added to home - born to express the baseness of his service, because the master had power to make those slaves who were born of slaves in his house. Why - Why is he thus tyrannized over, as if strangers had the same right over him as owners over their slaves?
15 Lions - Understand the Assyrians, Babylonians, and Egyptians, called lions from their fierceness, and young from their strength. Yelled - Noting the terrible voice that the lion puts forth, either in seizing the prey, or devouring it.
16 Noph, &c. - Two of the kings of Egypt's principal seats. Noph was sometimes called Memphis, now Cairo. Tahapanes probably took its name from Taphanes queen of Egypt, 1Kings 11:19, called also Hanes: Isa 30:4. The inhabitants of these cities are called here their children.
17 When - By the conduct of providence in the wilderness, keeping thee from all dangers.
18 And now - What business hast thou there? Sihor - The Nile: it signifies black, called Melas by the Greeks, either from the blackness of the land it passed through, or of the soil it casts up. The waters - Here and by the same words before is meant, to seek help from either place. River - Euphrates, often called so by way of eminency.
19 Thy wickedness - Thy own wickedness is the cause of thy correction. Know - Consider well, and thou canst not but be convinced.
20 Broken - The bondage and tyranny that thou wert under in old time in Egypt, as also divers times besides. Tree - Under these shades idolaters thought there lay some hidden deity. Wanderest - The word properly signifies, making hast from one tree to another, or from one idol to another. Playing - Committing idolatry, which is a spiritual harlotry, chap.3:1,2.
21 A right seed - A right seed of true believers.
22 Nitre - Though interpreters do greatly vary in describing what is particularly meant here by Nitre and Soap, and would be superfluous to mention here; yet all agree, they are some materials that artists make use of for cleansing away spots from the skin. The blot of this people is by no art to be taken out; nor expiated by sacrifices; it is beyond the power of all natural and artificial ways of cleansing. Marked - Thy filthiness is so foul that it leaves a brand behind which cannot be hid or washed out, but will abide, Jer 17:1.
23 Baalim - The word is plural, as comprehensive of all their idols. Thy way - The filthiness thou hast left behind thee, whereby thou mayst be traced. Valley - Whether of Hinnom where they burnt their children in sacrifice, or in any valleys where thou hast been frequent in thy idolatries. Traversing - A metaphor taken from creatures that are hunted, that keep no direct path.
24 A wild ass - Another similitude for the more lively description of the same thing. The wind - This creature, by the wind, smells afar off which way her male is. In her occasion - That is, when she has an occasion to run impetuously to her male, she bears down all opposition. In her month - Perhaps the sense is, though Jerusalem be now madly bent upon going after her idols, that there is no stopping her, yet the time may come, in their afflictions, that they may grow more tame, and willing to receive counsel.
25 Withhold - Take not those courses that will reduce thee to poverty, to go bare foot, and to want wherewith to quench thy thirst. No hope - We care not since there is no remedy. Strangers - Idols.
26 Found - Not ashamed of his sin of theft, but that he is at last found.
27 Brought me forth - Or begotten me; so is the word used, Gen 4:18. This denotes the sottish stupidity of this people, to take a lifeless stock or stone to be their maker, and to give the honour of God unto them, Isa 44:17. Turned - They turn their faces towards their idols.
28 For - Thou hast enough of them, imitating the Heathens, who had, according to Varro, above thirty thousand deities. Make trial if any, or all of them together, can help thee.
30 Children - Your inhabitants in every city, they being frequently called the children of such a city. Correction - Instruction: though they were corrected, yet they would not be instructed. Your sword - You have been so far from receiving instruction, that you have, by the sword, and other ways of destruction, murdered those that I have sent to reprove you.
31 O generation - O ye men of this generation. See - You shall see the thing with your eyes, because your ears are shut against it. A wilderness - Have I been like the wilderness of Arabia, have not I accommodated you with all necessaries? A land of darkness - As it were a land uninhabitable, because of the total want of light. Have I been a God of no use or comfort to them, that they thus leave me? Have they had nothing from me but misery and affliction? We - Words of pride and boasting.
32 A maid - How unlikely is it, that a maid should forget her ornaments? A bride - Those jewels which the bridegroom was wont to present his bride with. Forgotten - In the neglect of my worship; me, who was not only their defence, but their glory.
33 Trimmest - Or, deckest, Ezek 23:40, thinking thereby to entice others to thy help. Taught - Nations that have been vile enough of themselves, by thy example are become more vile.
34 Skirts - Of thy garments: the tokens of cruelty may be seen openly there. Innocents - In thee is found the murder expressed here by blood of innocent persons, murdering souls as well as bodies. Search - Heb. by digging; as if the earth had covered the blood, or as if they had committed their wickedness in some obscure places. These - Upon thy garments, exposed openly to publick view.
35 Behold - I will proceed in my judgment against thee. Because - Because thou justifiest thyself.
36 Why - Why dost thou seek auxiliaries anywhere, rather than cleave to me? Ashamed - Egypt shall stand thee in no more stead than Assyria hath done.
37 Yea - All the help thou canst procure shall not prevent thy captivity, but from hence thou shalt go. Thy hands - An usual posture of mourning.

Chapter III

God's forbearance with the idolatry of Judah, who is worse than Israel, ver. 1 - 11. Both called to repent, with gospel promises, ver. 12 - 19. Misery by sin; salvation only of God, ver. 20 - 25.

1 Shall be - He cannot take her again according to the law, Deut 24:1 - 4. Yet I am ready to be reconciled to you. Polluted - Would not so great a sin greatly pollute a nation? Many - Not with one only, but many idols.
2 Lien with - Where there are not the footsteps of thy idolaters. Sat - To assure passengers. As the Arabian - An allusion to the custom of that people, who were wont to pitch their tents by the way - sides, that they might meet with their customers to trade, as they passed along. Wickedness - Not only thy idolatries, but other wicked courses.
3 A whore's forehead - For all this, thou didst still remain obstinate, as ashamed of nothing.
4 My father - Wilt thou not as a child call upon me, whom thou hast thus greatly provoked. The guide - I have been brought up by thee.
5 Will he - Will he not be reconciled?
6 Israel - The ten tribes who fell off from Judah.
8 Given a bill - Delivered her up into the hands of the Assyrian, where God took from her the title of being his church, 2Kings 17:5,6.
10 And yet - Though God saw what she did, and though she saw the shameful idolatry of Israel, and what she had suffered.
12 The north - To Assyria and Media, that lay northward from Judea, whither the ten tribes were carried by Tiglath - pileser, and Salmanezer.
13 Strangers - To other gods, or to idols, running here and there up and down.
14 I am married - I am in covenant with you, and this covenant notwithstanding all your unfaithfulness, I am ready to renew with you. Family - This word is taken frequently for a country or nation, and this may partly respect the fewness of those that will return. But chiefly it respects God's exact care of them, that being now married to them, there shall not be one in a city, or two in a country or tribe, but he will find them out. Zion - The ten tribes did never return into their own land, therefore this must be understood of a spiritual going up to Zion, when all Israel shall be saved, Rom 11:26.
16 Multiplied - After the growth of the church under the Messiah. The ark - That whole worship with all the rites and ceremonies belonging to it shall cease, Christ being come, who was the substance of what the ark, and all other rites shadowed. Covenant - Called also the ark of the testimony, because the two tables of the law, which were the testimony, or witness of the covenant were in it. Any more - It shall be no more in use; neither shall men trouble their thoughts about it, or mention it.
17 The throne - Instead of the ark, the church typified by Jerusalem, shall be the place of God's residence, where by his spirit he will rule and act in his word and ordinances. Jerusalem - Dwelling in Jerusalem, or where the Lord placed his name, of old in Jerusalem, but now in the church. Neither - Both Jews and Gentiles shall now conform themselves to the will of God.
18 Judah - The two kingdoms shall become one. Shall come - Of their captivity, a promise of their enjoying again their ancient possession at their last conversion.
19 Put - Esteem thee as my child, 'till thou give some proof, of thy repentance. Give thee - How shall I put thee into possession of that pleasant land. Of nations - Great hosts and multitudes of nations, or Gentiles, that shall be joined to them in the gospel church. Thou shalt - On this condition, that thou wilt own me, and not return any more to idols.
21 A voice - Here the prophet seems to express Israel's repentance. Forgotten - This expresses, rather the matter or their prayer, than the cause of it.
23 The hills - From idols which were worshipped upon hills. Mountains - The multitude of sacrifices, which they offer in the mountains.
24 Shame - Sin, which causes shame, for that brought shame first into the world. Devoured - This hath been the fruit of our labour.
25 Lie down - An expression to set forth the greatness of their repentance and sorrow in great perplexity, not knowing what to do, throws himself down upon his couch or bed.

Chapter IV

An invitation to true repentance, by promises, ver. 1 - 4. And judgments coming on them by the Babylonians, contrary to the predictions of their false prophets, for their sins, ver. 5 - 18. A grievous lamentation for the miseries of Judah, ver. 19 - 31.

1 If - If thou wilt return, return; make no longer delay. Remove - Thou shalt not go out of thine own land into exile.
2 Swear - This is put here for the whole worship of God, acknowledging an& owning God as the only God; which is strongly exprest by this act. In truth - That the matter and substance of it be true. In judgment - Deliberately, advisedly, and reverently. In righteousness - That none be injured by it, that the things we engage be both lawful and possible, and that we look to the performance. The nations - This shall be a means to work upon the Heathen nations, to come into the same way of worship. They shall think themselves happy to be incorporated with thee, that it may be with them according to that promise, Gen 12:3. Glory - Whereas before they gloried in their idols, they shall glory in God alone.
3 For - The Lord turns now his speech from Israel to Judah. Break up - Prepare your hearts by making them soft, tender, and pliable, fit to embrace my word. A metaphor taken from plow - men. Thorns - Rid your hearts and hands of what may hinder you of embracing my word.
4 Circumcise - Put away your corruptions. Heart - Let it be inward, not outward in the flesh only.
5 The trumpet - The Lord being now about to bring enemies upon them, speaks in martial language, warning them of the nature of their approaching judgment.
6 Retire - Make haste away.
7 The lion - Nebuchadnezzar, so called from his fierceness and strength.
9 The heart - They shall have no heart to do any thing, they shall not be able to help their people, either by their counsel or arms. Prophets - False prophets that had nothing but visions of peace for them.
10 Deceived - Hast suffered them to be deceived by their false prophets. Whereas - To persuade them it should be well with them, when the sword is at the door, not only ready to take away the comforts of life, but even life itself.
11 At that time - There shall be tidings brought both to the country and city. A dry wind - A drying wind, such as shall blast and scorch where it comes, without any rain or moisture. It points at the stormy and furious irruption of the Babylonian army. In the plain - Where there is no stop in the way to break its fury. Toward - Directly, and designedly, coming in the way leading to my people. Not - Not such a gentle wind, as is made choice of to separate the chaff from the wheat; but so boisterous and violent, that it shall sweep away, and lay waste, all together.
12 Full - Heb. Fuller than they. A wind too strong for them. Shall come - It shall presently come to me, to receive my commission, and do my will.
13 As clouds - Denoting the suddenness of them, when not expected, clouds often rising on a sudden, and overspread the whole face of the heavens; or the great swiftness with which Nebuchadnezzar should march against them. As a whirlwind - Which, besides the swiftness, denotes also the confusion and amazement that they will cause.
14 Wash - As a means to prevent the judgments that are impending. Vain thoughts - Vain fancies of safety.
15 From Dan - Dan was the first place the Chaldeans came to, being the utmost boundary of Canaan northward. Ephraim was the innermost border of Israel in the north of Judea, intimating the march of the Babylonians thro' all Israel.
16 Make mention - These words are a proclamation, summoning the nations by the Chaldeans. Watchers - Chaldean soldiers, who shall so carefully encompass Jerusalem, that none shall escape. Give out - They give a shout, encouraging the soldiers to battle.
17 As keepers - They will watch that none relieve them, and that none get out to escape.
18 Bitter - Thy wickedness hath been the cause of bringing such a bitter enemy against thee, which hath reached unto thy very heart.
19 My bowels - Here begins the complaint of the prophet. My heart - Is disturbed within me. Because - I have heard in the spirit of prophecy; it is as certain, as if I now heard the trumpet sounding.
20 Destruction - Good Josiah slain, and four of his successors carried away, or slain. My tents - The enemy makes no more of overthrowing my stately cities, than if he were overturning tents made of curtains.
23 I beheld - I Jeremiah saw this in a vision. It - The land was squalid, and ruined, like the first chaos, for which reason possibly he calls Judah the earth, in allusion to Gen 1:2. The heavens - He seems to proceed in his metaphor of the chaos. Every thing above and below seemed to be wrapped up in dismal blackness.
24 Trembled - He proceeds in his figurative expressions. Behold how the very mountains of Judea tremble! Moved - As easily as dust, or feathers in a whirl - wind.
25 No man - All being either slain, or carried captive, or fled.
27 Yet - In the midst of judgment he will remember mercy.
28 Mourn - Expressions to set forth the dreadfulness of the judgment; he makes the elements to personate mourners.
31 In travail - When the scripture would express any exquisite sorrow, it doth it by a woman in travail. First child - Which is usually the most painful. Spreadeth her hands - According to the use of persons in great anguish, clapping or wringing their hands together.

Chapter V

None godly in Judah, ver. 1. They swear falsely, tho' God be a God us truth; they are incorrigible and senseless, and know not the law, or else wilfully violate it, ver. 1 - 6. Their idolatry, adultery, ver. 7 - 9. Contempt of God's word and prophets, which should be sadly verified, ver, 10 - 18. They forsake, forget, and fear not God, whose power is so great, ver. 19 - 24. They are rich through deceit and violence; their false prophets, ver. 25 - 31.

1 Run - God gives leave to all the earth to look into the state of Jerusalem, by which he vindicates himself in the face of the whole world from all severity towards his people, whatever he brings upon them. In the broad places - Even there, where men meet from all quarters. A man - It seems worse than Sodom and Gomorrah, for God condescends to pardon Jerusalem, if there be but one righteous man found in it; there he came no lower than ten. A man might walk the streets of Jerusalem long enough before he could meet with any one truly religious. Executeth - Among the magistracy. Seeketh - Among the commonalty, that deal faithfully and uprightly.
2 Though - Though when they swear, they use the form of an oath, and say, the Lord liveth, or by the living God: yet it is neither in truth nor righteousness.
3 O Lord - Dost not thou approve truth and faithfulness. Grieved - They have not repented. Consumed - God had not only lightly chastised them, but wasted them by several enemies, yet they have profited nothing by it.
4 Poor - The vulgar, that understand but little, of less conscience than the better sort. Judgment - The methods or ways of his providence.
5 But - These are more refractory than the other; no law of God is able to hold them.
6 A lion - Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldean army are here pointed at under the metaphor of beasts of prey of three kinds; compared to a lion, which denotes his great power, courage, and pride. A wolf - For their greediness and unsatiableness. A leopard - The Chaldean army is compared to a leopard, not for its speed only, but for its vigilancy and subtilty.
7 They then - Such is the natural effect of unsanctified prosperity.
10 Ye - Ye Babylonians, go execute my vengeance on them. Battlements - Lay her and all her fortifications level with the ground. For - I disown them.
12 Belied - Not believing that these words of the prophet were God's word.
13 Became wind - A proverbial expression, all the prophet's threats shall come to nothing. The word - The prophet's words are not from God. Thus - It shall fall upon their own heads that have thus threatened us.
14 It - The Chaldean army, shall consume and eat them up like fire.
15 Israel - By these are meant Judah; for Israel were in captivity before: called the house of Israel, not only because they descended from Jacob, but because they were the chief of that stock.
18 Nevertheless - I have not done with you yet.
20 Judah - By Judah and Jacob we are to understand the two tribes only.
21 And hear not - They are wilfully blind, and obstinately deaf, will neither see, nor hear the word, will, or works of God, of which he giveth two instances in the two following verses.
22 The sand - That need not make rocks for walls unto it, but can give a check to it by so small a matter as the sand.
23 Gone - From me.
24 The former rain - The former to prepare the ground for sowing, and the latter to prepare the corn for ripening. Reserveth - He gives seasonable harvests according to his appointment. God would let them know what a foolish, as well as wicked thing it is to set themselves against that God, that keeps the whole order of nature at his own disposal, which he can order as he sees men behave towards him.
26 They catch - Such a trap did Jezebel lay for Naboth, 1Kings 21:9,10. Such an one was that conspiracy of more than forty men against Paul, Acts 23:13 - 15.
27 Their houses - They fill their houses with the goods of those they deceive, and over - reach.
28 Overpass - They go beyond the Heathens themselves in wickedness.
30 The land - Heb. This land: aggravating the greatness of the wonder, that such a thing should be in such a land.

Chapter VI

God sends and strengthens the Babylonians against Judah, ver. 1 - 5. for her oppression and spoils, ver. 6 - 8. and obstinacy; which provokes God's wrath, ver. 9 - 12. Their covetousness, false confidence, and impudence; people and priests refuse to obey God, ver. 13 - 17. Their hypocritical worship shall not prevent their sure destruction, ver. 18 - 25. The people called to mourn, ver. 26. The prophet encouraged under their wickedness, and the fruitlessness of his ministry among them, ver. 27 - 30.

1 Benjamin - Judah, when the ten tribes fell off, the tribe of Benjamin adhered to Judah, and was incorporated into them; if it be asked why the prophet rather speaks to Benjamin than to Judah, the reason probably may be, because he being of Anathoth was of that tribe, and therefore mentions them as his own countrymen. Gather - Gather yourselves together by the sound of the trumpet at Tekoa, one of those fenced cities twelve miles from Jerusalem that Rehoboam built. A sign - Fire a beacon. Beth - haccerem - Signifies the house of the vineyard, probably some high tower built among the vineyards for the keepers of them to watch them.
3 The shepherds - The Chaldean princes, with their armies, as so many flocks, shall come into this pleasant land. In his place - Each one in his quarter or station.
4 Prepare - These seem to be the words of God calling them to this work. Arise - This shews how ready they will be to obey God's call. The day goeth - We delay, and tarry too long, and the day spends apace. The shadows - They were so eagerly set upon it, that they watched the lengthening of the shadow, which shews the approach of the evening.
5 This night - They would lose neither day nor night; which shews that, they were extraordinarily stirred up by God in this expedition.
6 Said - To the Chaldeans: God would have the Jews to know, that they have not so much to do with the Chaldeans as with him; that they are his rod to scourge them for their sins. And thus God is said to hiss for such whom he will employ in such work, Isa 5:26 7:18. And he styles himself the Lord of hosts, to shew that it is in vain to contend in battle with them, whom he sends forth. Trees - Such as you may have need of to raise up works against the strong places. Cast a mount - Throw up one continued trench, as a mount round about it. Oppression - There are found in her all kinds of oppression and injustice.
8 Be thou instructed - I would yet willingly spare them if it might be. Depart - Heb. be disjointed, a most emphatical metaphor, whereby God would express how great grief it is to him to withdraw himself from them, even like the separating one limb from another.
9 Glean - Judah shalt be gleaned over and over, 'till there be a full end, none left. Turn back - As much as to say, they should not be content with one spoiling, but they should go back a second and a third time, to carry away both persons and spoil.
10 Their ear - An uncircumcised ear, signifies the rejecting of instruction; an uncircumcised heart, an obstinate and rebellious will. They cannot - They had brought themselves under that incapacity by their obstinacy and wilfulness. A reproach - They laugh at it, and scorn it.
11 I am full - I am, as it were, filled with the fire of God's wrath, which I am forced to discharge myself of. Abroad - The streets being the places where children are wont to sport. The husband - One sex as well as the other, shall be a prey to the enemy. Full of days - Such as had filled up the number of their days, as were at the edge of the grave.
13 Falsely - Heb. doing falsehood, as if that were their whole work, the proper sin of the priests and prophets, to deceive the people, and to flatter them by false visions.
14 They have - This refers peculiarly to the prophets; making light of these threatenings, daubing over the misery and danger that was coming on the people, by persuading them, that it should not come, or if it did, it would be easily cured.
15 Committed - Both by encouraging the people, and joining with them in their idolatries.
16 Stand - He now turns his speech to the people, and gives them counsel; by a metaphor taken from travellers, that being in doubt of their way, stand still, and consider, whether the direction they have received from some false guide, be right or not.
17 Trumpet - The voice of his prophet, intimating his loud crying upon the account of eminent danger.
18 Nations - He calls upon the nations round about to be spectators of his severity against Judah. What - The greatness of their punishment, as the effect of the greatness of their sins.
20 Sheba - A country in Arabia Faelix, to which country frankincense was peculiar. The sweet cane - The same that is mentioned as an ingredient in the holy oil, Exod 30:23. To what purpose art thou at this trouble and charge to fetch these ingredients for thy incense.
21 I will say - I will suffer such things to be laid in their way, as shall be the occasion of their destruction. The neighbour - Men of all sorts and conditions.
22 Behold - God shall stir up the Chaldeans like a great storm. The sides - The uttermost parts of the Babylonian territories.
24 We - The prophet personates the peoples affections.
25 Go not forth - Expressing the great danger that there would be everywhere.
26 Gird thee - The prophet calls upon them to mourn in the deepest manner.
27 I have set thee - Here God speaks by way of encouragement to the prophet, and tells him, he had made him a fortified tower, that he might be safe, notwithstanding all the attempts against him. And try - As refiners do metals; hereby be is encouraged to reprove them more freely, God will give him prudence to see what is amiss, and undauntedness to oppose it.
29 The bellows - The prophet prosecutes his metaphor taken from refining of metals, intimating, that the prophets had spent their breath to no purpose, and their strength was consumed by their labour. The lead - The judgments which were heavy, as lead upon them, are all wasted, and do no good. In vain - Let the artist use his greatest skill and industry, yet is it all in vain.
30 Refuse - Such as will be rejected in payments.

Chapter VII

A call to true repentance, ver. 1 - 7. Not to live in theft, murder, adultery, perjury, &c., to trust in the outward worship and temple of God, by the example of Shiloh, ver. 8 - 15. The prophet is forbid to pray for them, ver. 16. Their idolatry, and its judgment, ver. 17 - 20. Their sacrifices rejected, and obedience required, ver. 21 - 28. They are called to mourn for their abominations in Tophet, and their judgments, ver. 29 - 34.

2 The gate - The east gate, which was the publick place of going out and coming in, and where the people were then wont to assemble. Proclaim - Proclaiming signifies both the authority by which he spake, and the divulging of what he spake plainly and boldly; possibly, it might be at some publick time, when all the males were to meet.
4 Saying - Because this was God's house, they flattered themselves that he would not suffer the Chaldeans to destroy it, therefore the prophet cautions them not to deceive themselves, trusting to the temple and its buildings, as the two courts and house, and holy of holies implied in the word these, which he doth as it were point to with his finger. The emphasis, in this threefold repetition, seems to relate to the confident, and reiterated boasts of the temple, that were in their mouths. These - The prophet standing in the gate at which the people entered, as it were, points at the several buildings pertaining to the temple.
6 Oppress not - Here they are cautioned against three sins, that this people were generally addicted to, oppression, blood, and idolatry; and instances in the worst of oppressions, of such as God hath more especially taken into his immediate protection.
9 Will ye steal - Can you think that this can be grateful to me, or advantageous to yourselves, to frequent my house, and yet retain these odious sins. Whom - Such as they had set up new, and never had any experience of, and therefore could have no reason to serve them.
10 Delivered - After they had appeared before God with their sacrifices, they thought they were privileged to return to all those wickednesses.
11 A den - Do you look upon this house as a sanctuary for robbers and murderers.
12 Shiloh - A place in the tribe of Ephraim. Where - Where I did at first give you the pledges of my presence. What I did - He utterly forsook it.
15 Even - The ten tribes.
16 Pray not - Certainly the prophet did pray that God would save a remnant, though not that he would revoke his decree; or save the body of them.
18 The children - Here God shews how busily they are employed from the youngest to the oldest for their idolatry. The queen - As the sun was looked upon as king, so the moon as the queen of heaven.
20 Shall not be quenched - He follows the threatening with shewing his resolution is not to be revoked.
21 Put - Ironical words, take those that are peculiar, and to be all burnt to me, and do what you will with them, I will have none of them. To your sacrifices - That part of your sacrifices, which you are allowed to eat, they are but as profane food.
22 For - God doth not condemn these offerings, save only comparatively in respect of obedience, not so much these, as obeying his commands.
25 Since the day - The church of God hath never wanted teachers raised up and sent by God.
28 Cut off - There is no believing them in any thing they say.
29 Cut off thine hair - This was an usual token of sorrow among the Jews. On high places - Upon the high places where thou wentest a whoring from me. The generation - A generation destined to the wrath of God.
30 In the house - It was not enough to have their idols abroad in the hills and groves, but they must bring them into God's house.
31 Tophet - It comes from Toph, a drum, because they beat drums to drown the children's screeches, when they burnt them in sacrifice upon the altars, called here high places, to Moloch. Tophet was situate in a pleasant valley near Jerusalem, a place in the possession of the children of one Hinnom, Josh 15:8.

Chapter VIII

The calamity of the Jews, both dead and alive, ver. 1 - 3. Their brutish impenitency, ver. 4 - 7. Their vain boast of wisdom: their covetousness, security, impudence, ver. 8 - 12. Their grievous judgments, ver. 13 - 17. Bewailed by the prophet, ver. 18 - 22.

1 The bones - This denotes the utter desolation of the city, not only rasing the walls, but turning up the very sepulchres which were accounted sacred, and not to be violated.
4 Not arise - Will they never think of rising again? Not return - Will he wander for ever?
5 Deceit - Their false prophets, encouraging themselves in their wickedness, and pleasing themselves, that their miseries should not come upon them.
6 I - God.
7 Appointed time - The seasons of her going and coming. The judgment - God's vengeance, hovering over Jerusalem, and Judea.
8 How - These things considered where is your wisdom? He speaks to the whole body of the people. The Lord - This may have a more special eye to the priests. In vain - For any use they made of it; neither need it ever have been copied out by the scribe. A scribe was a teacher, one well versed in the scripture, or esteemed to be so.
13 Pass away - Shall be taken away by their enemies.
14 Why - The people at length seem to bethink themselves, and thus to bespeak each other. Silent - Keep close within our walls.
16 The snorting - The fury of the Chaldeans march is described by the snorting of their horses, which is a noise they make through their nostrils. Heard - Even to Jerusalem. Have devoured - It is spoken in a prophetical style, who use to express the certainty of what shall be, as if it actually were already.
17 Shall bite - There will be no appeasing their fury by any method.
18 Sorrow - The prophet now seems to speak, how greatly the calamity of this people affected him.
19 Why - As if God should seem to reply; let them not think it strange, seeing they have turned their backs upon me, and trusted to idols.
21 Am I hurt - The prophet here shews how deeply he is affected with the peoples misery. Black - I am as those that are clad in deep mourning.

Chapter IX

The prophet's lamentation continues over their adultery, deceit, idolatry, which God would certainly punish, and they should be laid waste, when they should sufficiently lament, ver. 1 - 22. No trust in ourselves, but in God, who will punish all nations, ver. 23 - 26.

2 A lodging place - Some retiring place, though it were but some mean hut in the wilderness.
5 Weary - They use industry, and contrivance in it, they spare no labour.
7 Try them - By melting them, I will bring upon them, the fire of the Chaldean war, that shall purge away those deceits in which they trust, that the remnant may be purified. For how - I have tried all other means.
10 Wailing - The prophet having taken up a lamentation for the slaughter of the people, now re - assumes it for the desolation of the whole land. The mountains shall not be able to secure them, nor the valleys to feed them.
12 Who is - Is there not a wise man among you, that will search into the cause of all these threatened judgments.
16 A sword - But I will follow them with the sword, 'till they be destroyed, such of them as were appointed for destruction; for otherwise, they were not all consumed, a full end was not to be made.
17 Women - Who were hired to tear their hair, and beat their breasts, with other mourning postures, a foolish custom which has obtained in most ages and countries. Cunning - Such as are most skilful in it.
20 Every one - It denotes how large and universal the mourning shall be.
21 Death - The unavoidableness of the ruin is expressed metaphorically, alluding to the storming of a city, wherein there is no respect had to sex, youth, or age.
22 As the handful - They shall be no more regarded than a few scattered ears that drop out of the reapers hand, which either lie on the ground and are eaten by birds, or trod to dirt by beasts. None - None shall have so much respect to them, as to afford burial.
24 Knoweth - Whether we make any curious distinction between understanding God, as if that be more speculative, whereby we rightly apprehend his nature; and knowing God, as if that be more practical, as directing the conversation, we need not here enquire; yet certainly both center in this, that we so know and understand God as to trust in him, and depend on him alone in all conditions. Exercise - Kindness, as it relates to his own people; judgment, in punishing the wicked; righteousness, as he deals justly and uprightly with both.

Chapter X

They are forbid to be afraid of the tokens of heaven, and consult idols which are vain, ver. 1 - 5 and not to be compared with the majesty and power of God, who is Jacob's portion, ver. 6 - 16. The Babylonians destroy the temple; the brutish pastors and the flocks are scattered, ver. 17 - 22. The prophet's humble supplication, ver. 23 - 25.

2 Learn not - The Jews being to live among the Chaldeans in their captivity, where many of them were already, the prophet admonishes them against the Chaldean idolatries, who were all much addicted to astrology. The signs - This was so common among them, that Judicial astrologers, of what nation soever, were generally termed Chaldeans. The Heathen - Leave this to Heathens; it doth not become God's people.
9 Tarshish - Is the proper name of a sea - town in Cilicia, and being a noted port, it is usually put for the ocean, and may signify any place beyond the sea. Uphaz - Probably the best gold came from thence as the best silver from Tarshish.
10 But - All these are but false gods. Living - These are all but dead stocks and stones, Jehovah is the only living God, having life in himself, and giving life to all things else. An everlasting king - Time devours them all, but the true God is everlasting.
13 When - As in the former verse he relates God's unspeakable power and wisdom in his creating and fixing the stated order of things, so here he farther sets it forth in his providential ordering and disposing of them.
14 Every man - Every idolator.
15 Visitation - When God shall come to reckon with Babylon and her idols.
16 Portion - God, who vouchsafes to be the portion of his people. The former - Idols are things framed or formed, but God is the former of all things. The rod of his inheritance - So called, because the inheritances of Israel were measured by a line, reed, or rod.
17 Gather up - The prophet now enters upon another subject. Thy wares - Every thing thou hast any advantage by, all thy merchandise, as men use to do in case of invasion by an enemy. The fortress - The inhabitants of Jerusalem, the chief place of security in Judea.
18 Sing out - It denotes with how much violence and ease the Chaldeans shall hurry away the people into Babylon. And therefore it is said at this once, I will make one thorough quick work of it. May find it so - Though they would never believe it, yet they shall actually find the truth of my threatenings.
19 Woe is me - Here the prophet personates the complaint of the people of the land.
20 My tabernacle - He describes the overthrow of the land, or Jerusalem, by the breaking of the cords of a tabernacle, the use whereof is to fasten it on every side to stakes in the ground, which cords being broken the tabernacle falls.
21 The pastors - The rulers of church and state.
22 Noise - Rumour, report.
23 It is not - Lord we know it is not in our power to divert these judgments that are coming upon us, but thou canst moderate, and limit them as thou pleasest.
24 Correct me - Seeing thou wilt punish us, let it be a correction only, not a destruction. Let it be in measure; in the midst of judgment remember mercy. Anger - Lest if thou shouldst let out thy fury upon me, thou wouldst utterly consume me.
25 The Heathen - Such as do not acknowledge thee for their God. Call not - One part of worship put for the whole. If thou wilt pour out thy fury, let the effects of it be to thine enemies, not unto thine own people.

Chapter XI

God's covenant, ver. 1 - 7. Their disobedience, ver. 8 - 10. Evils to come on them, ver. 11 - 17. and on the men of Anathoth, for conspiring to kill Jeremiah, ver. 18 - 23.

2 Of this covenant - The covenant here spoken of, was the covenant of the law of God, delivered by Moses, to which the people more than once promised obedience.
5 So be it - God having ended his speech, the prophet saith, Amen, either asserting the truth of which God had said, or wishing that the people would do according to their covenant.
8 Did them not - For this God threatens to bring upon them all his words of threatening, annexed to the covenant of the law.
9 A conspiracy - All sorts of people have done alike, as if they had conspired together to break my law.
11 I will not hearken - God will not hear them crying to him in their adversity, who refuse to hear him speaking to them in their prosperity.
13 That shameful thing - Baal, called a shameful thing, because it was what they had reason to be ashamed of, and what would certainly bring them to shame and confusion. Baal - Signifies Lord, and was a common name given to more idols than one; the Phoenicians used the name Baal, the Chaldeans, Bell. Learned men say, that the Asians called the same idol Baal, whom those of Europe called Jupiter. It is not improbable, that the Heathens acknowledging one supreme being, worshipped him in several creatures; some mistaking the Sun, Moon, and Stars to be he, others, other things; these they called Baalim, Lords, as they called the principal god, Baal.
15 My beloved - My people, saith God, though I was formerly their husband, yet have wrought lewdness with many, that is, committed idolatry with many idols, and now what have they to do more in my house? The holy flesh - Flesh of their sacrifices, being set before idols, as well as before God, became polluted, and was abomination to the Lord. Thou rejoicest - They were not only evil but gloried in their wickedness.
16 Fair - The Lord fixed thee when he brought thee first into Canaan, in a flourishing condition, like a fair olive - tree, fit to bear goodly fruit. Broken - But thou hast so behaved thyself, that he who planted thee, is about to pluck thee up. God is about to kindle a fire which will burn thee up, and to break thy branches.
18 Thou shewedst me - This may be understood with relation to that conspiracy which is mentioned in the following verses.
19 Let us destroy - We have no other mention of this conspiracy, but it is plain both from this verse, and what follows, that the men of Anathoth (which was Jeremiah's own town) were offended at his prophesying, and had conspired to kill him. Let us destroy the tree with the fruit thereof - Let us not only put an end to his prophesying, but to his life.

Chapter XII

The prophet complains of the prosperity of the wicked: by faith sees their ruin, ver. 1 - 4. God admonishes him of his brethren's treachery against him, and laments his heritage, ver. 5 - 13. A return from captivity promised to the penitent, ver. 14 - 17.

1 Talk with thee - Not by way of accusing thee, but for my own satisfaction concerning thy judicial dispensations in the government of the world. Wherefore - I know thy ways are just and righteous, but they are dark; I cannot understand why thou doest this.
2 Far - Thou art far from their inward parts, they neither fear thee, nor love thee.
4 He - They were bold to say, neither the prophet nor any other should see their last end.
5 If - If thou art not able to encounter lesser dangers, how wilt thou be able to overcome greater? I have greater dangers for thee to encounter than those at Anathoth; if thou art so disturbed with them, how wilt thou be able to grapple with those at Jerusalem. Jordan - Anathoth seems to be understood by the land of thy peace, that is, the land of thy friends wherein thou hadst a confidence: if thy enemies there tire thee, what wilt thou do in the swellings of Jordan? In a place in which thou art like to meet with greater troubles, like the swelling of Jordan (which in harvest used to overflow its banks).
6 For even - The men of Anathoth, thine own town and country, and those of thy own family have conspired evil against thee secretly. A multitude - They have exposed thee to the rage of a multitude. Though - Tho' therefore they give thee fair words, yet repose no confidence in them.
7 My house - God by his house here understands the temple. Heritage - The whole body of the Israelites, whom God threatens to leave with respect to his special providence.
8 As a lion - Those that were my sheep, are become like lions.
9 The birds round about - It is usual for other birds to flock about a strange coloured bird, such as they have not been used to see.
10 A wilderness - They have caused God to turn the country which he had chosen for his portion, into a wilderness.
11 They - Heb. He hath made it desolate: but it cannot be meant of God, for it is God that speaketh, and God is he mentioned in the next words; it must therefore either be understood of Nebuchadnezzar, the instrumental cause; or (one number being put for another) of the people or the rulers as the meritorious cause, and in that rueful state into which their sins had brought it, it cried onto God. Because - And one great cause of this sore judgment was, the peoples not seriously considering what God had done or was doing against it.
12 Are come - The prophet, as usual, speaks of a thing as already done, which was very shortly to be done. No flesh - No rank or order of men.
13 Shall not profit - All the works of their hands, all their counsels and deliberations should be of no profit unto them. Because - The fierce anger of God shall be so shewed, that the returns of their labours or estates, the profits of their trades, shall be so small, that they shall be ashamed of them.
14 Behold - I will bring the sword upon them also, and they shall be led into captivity; and tho' they may have made inroads upon my people, and carried away some of them, yet I will fetch them out of their captivity.
16 If - If they will leave their idolatries, and learn to worship me, and swear by my name the Lord liveth, that is, pay that homage which they owe to the Divine being to me, the living and true God. Then - They shall have a portion among my people, which was eminently fulfilled in the conversion of the Gentiles.

Chapter XIII

In the type of a linen girdle God prefigures their destruction, ver. 1 - 11. Under the parable of bottles filled with wine, is foretold their drunkenness with misery, ver. 12 - 14. He exhorts to prevent these judgments by repentance, ver. 15 - 27.

5 So - Most think Jeremiah did this in a vision, for it was a very long journey from Anathoth to Euphrates.
12 Do we not know - This is no strange thing.
13 Behold - There is a wine of astonishment and confusion, Psa 60:3. With that wine, saith God, I will fill all orders of persons, kings, priests, prophets, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem.
16 Give glory - Glorify God, by an humble confession of your sins, by submitting yourselves to God, humbling yourselves under his word, and under his mighty hand, before God brings upon you, his great and heavy judgments.
19 The cities - The cities of Judah lay southward from Chaldea.
20 Where - The prophet speaks to the king, or to the rulers. In the multitude of the people is the king's honour.
21 What wilt thou say - Thou wilt have nothing to say, but be wholly confounded when God shall visit thee with this sore judgment, for by thy so often calling them to thy assistance, thou hast taught them to be captains over thee.
22 Thy skirts - Probably these phrases are fetched from the usual practice of soldiers when they have conquered a place and taken prisoners, to strip them. By skirts is meant the lower part of their bodies covered with the lower part of their garments.
26 Therefore - I will expose thee to shame and contempt.
27 Thy whoredom - Thy idolatries.

Chapter XIV

A grievous famine prophesied, its miseries, ver. 1 - 6. The prophet prays, but God will not be entreated for them, ver. 7 - 12. Lying prophets no excuse for them, ver. 13 - 16. The prophet's complaint, ver. 17 - 22.

5 The hind - Hinds use not to get their food in fields, but upon mountains and in wildernesses, but the drought was such, that these creatures came into the lower grounds, and there brought forth their young. The hinds are loving creatures and as all creatures love their young, so hinds especially; but their moisture being dried up, they could not suckle them, but were forced to leave them, running about to seek grass to eat.
6 The wild asses - The wild asses wanting water, got upon high places, where was the coolest air, and sucked in the wind; and this it is said they did like dragons, of whom Aristotle and Pliny report, that they ordinarily stand upon high places sucking in the cool air.
7 Testify - That thou art righteous in what thou hast done. Do thou it - Do thou what we stand in need of; give us rain, though not for our sake, we deserve no such kindness from thee, yet for thy names sake: thy promise, or for thine honour and glory.
9 Astonished - In such disorder through some great passion, that he is able to do nothing. A mighty man - Like a man who in his own nature is strong, but through sickness so weakened, that he cannot put forth any strength for the succour of his friends. Yet - Yet (saith the prophet) thou art in the midst of us; of the whole land, according to what God had declared, Numb 5:3 35:34. Defile not the land which ye shall inhabit, wherein I dwell: for I the Lord dwell among the children of Israel.
10 Thus - Here begins the answer to the prophet's complaint and prayer in the nine first verses. The substance is, that for their manifold sins, he was resolved to punish them. They loved - They have been fond of their idols, and they have persisted in those sinful courses, notwithstanding all counsels.
21 The throne - The words are either to be understood of the throne of the house of David, called the Lord's throne, 1Chron 29:23, or else the temple, and the ark in it, the more special symbol of God's presence.
22 Rain - The present judgment under which they groan, was a drought, which he had described in the six first verses; the prophet imploring God for the removal of it, argues, from the impossibility of help in this case from any other way, none of the idols of the Heathens, which he calls vain things, nothing in themselves, and of no use, or profit to those that ran after them. Give showers - Without thy will? Art not - Lord, art not thou he alone who is able to do it? The scripture constantly gives God the honour of giving rain.

Chapter XV

The Jews rejection, and judgments, especially of four kinds; the sins which procured them, ver. 1 - 9. The prophet complains, that the people curse and persecute him for these prophecies; they are threatened, and he instructed and comforted, ver. 10 - 21.

1 Cast them out - I am not able to abide the sight of them, therefore let them go forth.
4 Manasseh - Manasseh is here named as the son of Hezekiah for his shame, because of his degeneracy from so good a parent; it is expressly said, 2Kings 23:26, that not withstanding Josiah's reformation, yet the Lord turned not from the fierceness of his wrath, kindled against Judah, for the provocations of Manasseh.
6 I am weary - I am resolved to bear no longer.
7 A fan - Not a purging fan by affliction, to separate their chaff and dross from them, but a scattering fan. In the gates - This is added in pursuit of the metaphor of fanning, men usually chusing barn - doors to fan at, that they may have the advantage of the wind.
8 Their widows - The prophet still speaks of things to come as if present. In Jehoiakim's time we read of no such plenty of widows; they were multiplied when the city was besieged and taken in Zedekiah's time, to a great number, hyperbolically compared to the sands of the sea. The mother - Jerusalem was the mother of the Jewish people, against whom, Nebuchadnezzar the spoiler, at noon - day, was sent.
9 Seven - Seven signifies many: the prophet complains, that the country of Judah, that had been very numerous in people, now grew feeble. While - In the midst of her prosperity. Confounded - A part of them were confounded by the judgments of God which came upon them before their captivity.
10 I have not - I have done them no wrong, yet they speak of me all manner of evil.
11 Thy remnant - The latter words of the verse expound the former; for by remnant is meant the remnant of days that Jeremiah had to live.
12 The northern iron - As the northern iron and steel is the hardest, and no iron could break that, so God having edged and hardened their enemies, the Chaldeans, all opposition to them would signify nothing.
13 The substance - All thy precious things shall be spoiled, there shall be no price taken for the redemption of them.
15 Thou knowest - My sincerity, or my sufferings. Visit me - With thy love.
16 Thy words - The words which from time to time thou didst reveal to me, were by me greedily digested. I am called - I became a prophet by thy authority, therefore, do thou own and defend me.
17 I sat not - God had all along filled his mouth with such dreadful messages, that his whole prophetical life had been to him a time of mourning and solitude, a time when he sat alone, mourning and weeping in secret for the wrath of God revealed to him against his people.
18 Why - Jeremiah, though a great prophet, was (as Elijah) a man subject to like passions with other men.
19 If thou - These are God's words to the prophet, rebuking his distrust in God, and promising him, that if he did return from his distrust in God's providence, he would restore him to the former favour he had with him, and he should be his prophet to reveal his mind to the people; and that if he would separate the precious truths of God from the vile conceits of men, then God would continue him as his prophet, to speak in his name to the people. But - He charges the prophet to keep his ground, and not to go over to wicked men.
21 The wicked - The wicked Jews. The terrible - And the power of the terrible Chaldeans.

Chapter XVI

The prophet is commanded to abstain from marriage, from mourning, or festival assemblies; hereby representing to them their approaching misery, ver. 1 - 9. Their sins which caused it, ver. 10 - 13. Their strange deliverance from Babylon, ver. 14, 15. After that their iniquity is recompensed, ver. 16 - 18. The prophet's comfort in the calling of the Gentiles, ver. 19 - 21

5 Enter not - Do not go to comfort such as mourn for any relations dead, (for their feastings upon those occasions were upon a consolatory account) those that die are most happy, for I will take away the peace of this people, and deprive them of all my mercy and loving - kindness.
6 Nor cut - Cutting themselves and cutting off their hair, were Pagan customs, which God forbad his own people; but yet it seemed they practised them: but saith God, Men shall die so fast that they shall have no leisure to cut themselves.
7 Deal bread - It was a custom among them, when they had any friend, that had lost his relations, to send them some meat (for among the Hebrews all things they ate were called bread) and then to go and sup with them, and speak comfortably to them. The cup - They were also wont to send wine, that they might forget their sorrows; this is called, The cup of consolation.
8 Go - God did not only forbid his prophet to go into houses of mourning, but forbad him to go into houses, where they were wont to eat and drink upon a more chearful account.
13 Ye shall serve - What is now matter of choice to you, shall then be forced upon you.
14 Notwithstanding - God sweetens the dreadful threatenings preceding, with a comfortable promise of their restoration.
16 Fishers - Those enemies whom God made use of to destroy the Jews, hunting them out of all holes and coverts wheresoever they should take sanctuary.
18 I will recompense - Before I will restore them, I will plentifully punish them, (for so double here signifies, not the double of what their sins deserve.) Defiled - By their idolatry, blood and cruelty. Detestable - Unclean beasts offered to their idols, or innocent persons slain by them.
21 Therefore - Because all the mercy I have shewed them, will not learn them to know my might, I will once for all make them to understand it, by the dreadful strokes of my vengeance. And - They shall know that my name is Jehovah; that I am not such a one as their idols, but one who have my being from myself, and give life and being to all other things, and have all might and power in my hand, and can do whatsoever I please.

Chapter XVII

The captivity of Judah for her sin, ver. 1 - 4. Trust in man cursed: in God, blessed, ver. 5 - 8. The deceitful heart and most secret practices are known to God, ver. 9 - 11. The salvation of God, ver. 12 - 14. The prophet complains of the mockers of his prophecies, ver. 15 - 18. Of keeping the sabbath, ver. 19 - 27.

1 Graven - Nor is it a thing done in secret, but it is engraven upon the horns of their altars. God's altar was four - square, and at each corner there was a rising part made of brass, these were called the horns of the altar. Now their sin is said to be engraven upon the horns of the altar, because the blood of the sacrifices which they offered to idols was sprinkled there, or because their altars had some inscription upon them, declaring to what idol that altar was consecrated.
2 Their children - This shewed how inveterate they were in this sin of idolatry, that they taught it their children.
3 My mountain - Jerusalem stood at the foot of an hill, and part of it on the side of it, upon the top of which hills, were many pleasant fields.
4 For ever - For a long time; so the word ever is often taken.
9 The heart - There is nothing so false and deceitful as the heart of man; deceitful in its apprehensions of things, in the hopes and promises which it nourishes, in the assurances that it gives us; unsearchable by others, deceitful with reference to ourselves, and abominably wicked, so that neither can a man know his own heart, nor can any other know that of his neighbour's.
11 Hatcheth them not - Having lost them, either by some man that has taken them from her, or by some vermin or wild beast. A fool - Shall lose it again before he dies, and then shall understand what a fool he was.
13 Depart - From what I have revealed to them as thy will, shall have no portion beyond the earth.
14 For thou art - He whom alone I have reason to praise for mercies already received.
15 Where - Daring the vengeance of God.
16 I hastened not - As I did not seek the office of a prophet, so when thou wast pleased to call me to it, I did not decline.

Chapter XVIII

By the parable of a potter, God's absolute power and disposal of nations is set forth, ver. 1 - 10. Judah's unparalleled revolt: and her judgments, ver. 11 - 17. The prophet prays against his conspirators, ver. 18 - 23.

6 Cannot I do - That God hath an absolute sovereign power to do what he pleases with the work of his hands: but he acts as a just judge, rendering to every man according to his works.
14 Of Lebanon - Lebanon had rocks, and also fruitful valleys; snow fell upon these rocks, and upon a thaw ran down into the lower places. Reason teaches men not to forsake a greater good for a less, tho' that greater good was but a poor creature comfort, not to be compared with God.
15 Vanity - Idols. Ancient paths - The ways wherein Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and all the ancient patriarchs walked. To walk - In a way not cast up, not fit for God's people to walk in.
16 Desolate - Not that this was the end they aimed at, but it was the end these courses would certainly issue in.
17 East wind - The east wind was in those parts the fiercest wind. As the east - wind scatters the chaff, so saith God, I will scatter them. In their calamity - And when they shall be in great calamity, I will turn my back upon them, I will not regard their prayers.
18 For - We have the church on our side; the regular priests and the prophets, they know God's mind as well as he. Let us smite him with the tongue - Expose him, representing him to be what the people hate.
21 Therefore - But is it lawful for God's servants to pray for evil against their enemies? It is not lawful for Christians. It is doubtless our duty, to pray for the conversion, forgiveness, and eternal salvation of our worst enemies.

Chapter XIX

Under the type of breaking a potter's vessel is foreshewn the desolation of the Jews for their sins committed in the valley of Hinnom, and elsewhere, ver. 1 - 15.

4 This place - Either this city, or this valley, which they had turned to an use quite contrary to the end for which God gave it them.
5 To burn - This and the following verse, contain another great sin of this people, with the punishment which God proportions to it. The sin in the general was idolatry, but a most barbarous species of it, mentioned also chap.7:31 32:35, where it is said, they made their sons and their daughters pass thro' the fire to Molech; the place where they did it is called Tophet, ver.19:6, of which also mention is made, Isa 30:33. Baal and Molech, signify the same thing; Baal signifies a Lord, Molech a King. Both Baal and Molech seem common names to all idols.
7 In this place - In this place, among others, I will make void all the counsels that the men of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, have taken to escape my righteous judgments.
12 As Tophet - That is, a place of slaughter and burials.
14 Then - Jeremiah had now dispatched the errand upon which God had sent him to Tophet, coming back by God's direction, he stands in the court, which was common to all people, where the most might hear.

Chapter XX

Pashur smiting Jeremiah for this prophecy, receives a new name, and fearful doom, ver. 1 - 6. Jeremiah's impatience under their treachery and contempt, ver. 7 - 10. Rejoices in hope of vengeance, ver. 11 - 13. Curses his birth, ver. 14 - 18.

1 Immer - The course of Immer was the sixteenth course of the priests, 1Chron 24:14. Pashur was his son, that is descended from him.
3 Not called - God's meaning was, not that he should by men be no longer called Pashur, but that his condition should not answer that name Pashur, which signifies, a flourishing priest; but Magor - missabib, that is, fear and terror on all sides.
7 Hast prevailed - Thou prevailedst against me. Jeremiah at first excused himself to God, chap.1:6, but the Lord prevailed against him replying, ver.1:7, Say not, I am a child, for thou shalt go to all that I shall send thee, and whatsoever I command thee thou shalt speak, ver.1:9. This is all that is here meant, namely, God's over - ruling him contrary to his own inclinations.
8 Since - Since I first began to be a prophet, I have faithfully discharged my office, and that with warmth and zeal. Spoil - I have prophesied that violence and spoil was coming. Because - Because of that scorn and derision with which they treated him.
9 I said - He did not speak this openly, but in his heart. But - He found in his heart a constraint to go on.
10 Prevail - Desiring nothing more than that I might be enticed to speak or do something which they might make matter of a colourable accusation.
11 But - The prophet recovering himself out of his fit of passion, encourageth himself in his God, whom he calls the mighty and terrible one, so declaring his faith in the power of God, as one able to save him, and in the promise and good will of God toward him; therefore he saith, The Lord is with me; such was the promise of God to this prophet, when he first undertook the prophetical office, chap.1:8. Be not afraid of their faces, for I am with thee to deliver thee saith the Lord: from hence be concludes, that though he had many that pursued after his life, yet they should stumble in their ways of violence, and should not prevail. Ashamed - That they should be ashamed of what they had done, or be brought to shame for what they had done; for prosper they should not: or they acted like fools, and did not deal prudently for themselves (so this word is translated, Isa 52:13,) yea, they should become a reproach, and their reproach should be a lasting perpetual reproach that should not be forgotten.
14 Cursed - This sudden change makes some think that these words proceeded from Jeremiah rather as a repetition of a former passion into which the abuses of his enemies had put him, than as the immediate product of his spirit at this time.
16 The cities - Sodom and Gomorrah; by the cry in the morning and shouting at noon, he means the shouts and noises that enemies make when they break in upon a place.

Chapter XXI

King Zedekiah in the siege sends to Jeremiah to enquire of the event, ver. 1, 2. He foretells a hard siege and miserable captivity, ver. 3 - 7. He counsels the people to fall to the Chaldeans, ver. 8 - 10. And upbraids the king's house, ver. 11 - 14.

2 Enquire - Zedekiah, as he was none of the best, so he was none of the worst of the kings of Judah. Having some reverence of God, he sends the prophet to enquire of the Lord.
8 Behold - I tell you the way you should take, if you would save your lives.
9 His life - This is a proverbial expression, signifying a man's possession of his life as a prey, or booty recovered from the enemy.
12 Execute judgment - That is, justice, without partiality, and do it quickly.
13 Of the valley - The inhabitants of the city of Jerusalem are here intended. Jerusalem itself was built in part upon the rocky mountain of Zion, but a great part was in the valley, and the higher mountains, about mount Zion, made that mountain itself, in comparison with them, as a valley. The plain - Though also a rock of the plain, that is, near to the plain. Which situation of this place, made the Jews think it to be impregnable.
14 The forest - By the forest he either means the forest of Lebanon or their houses, made of wood cut out of that forest. And it - And this fire shall not end in the destruction of this city, but in the total destruction of all the country round Jerusalem.

Chapter XXII

God sends the prophet to court with promises, ver. 1 - 4. and threats against the king's house and Jerusalem, ver. 5 - 9. The judgment of Shallum, ver. 10 - 12. Of Jehoiakim, ver. 13 - 19. And of Coniah, ver. 20 - 30.

6 Gilead - Gilead was a country fertile for pastures; upon which account the Reubenites and Gadites, being men whose estate lay in cattle, begged it of Moses for their portion. Lebanon also was a very pleasant place: they were both in the lot of Gad and Manasseh. Perhaps God compares the king of Judah's house to these places, in regard of the height and nobleness of the structure, or for the pleasantness and delightfulness of it.
10 Weep not - For Josiah your dead prince. Josiah is happy, you need not trouble yourselves for him; but weep for Jehoahaz, who is to go into captivity.
11 Shallum - Most think that this Shallum was Jehoahaz. Went forth - He was carried away from Jerusalem presently after he was set up, imprisoned at Riblah, and died in Egypt.
16 Was not this - They only truly know God who obey him; men vainly pretend to piety who are defective in justice and charity.
19 Of an ass - None attending him to his grave, none mourning for him.
20 Lebanon - Jerusalem was the place to which this speech is directed: the inhabitants of which the prophet calls to go up to Lebanon. Both Lebanon and Bashan were hills that looked towards Assyria, from whence the Jews looked for help. Abarim - Abarim is the name of a mountain, as well as Lebanon and Bashan. Go and cry for help from all places, but it will be in vain; for the Egyptians and Assyrians to whom thou wert wont to fly, are themselves in the power of the Chaldeans.
22 Pastors - Thy rulers and governors, they shall be blasted by my judgments, as plants are blasted by winds. Thy lovers - And those that have been thy friends, Syria and Egypt.
23 Lebanon - Jerusalem is called an inhabitant of Lebanon, because their houses were built of wood cut down out of the forest of Lebanon. Cedars - Their houses were built of the Cedars of Lebanon. How gracious - What favour wilt thou find when my judgments come upon thee, as the pains of a woman in travail come upon her.
24 Coniah - By Coniah he means Jehoiakim, whose name was Jeconiah, 1Chron 3:13, (for all Josiah's sons had two names, and so had his grandchild Jeconiah) here in contempt called Coniah. The signet - Tho' he were as dear as a signet, which every man keeps safe.
28 Is this - The prophet speaks this in the person of God, affirming that this prince, who was the idol of the people, was now become like a broken idol. A vessel - So cracked, or so tainted, that they can make no use of it.
30 Childless - He is said to be childless, either because all his children died before their father; or because he had no child that sat upon the throne, or ever had any ruler's place in Judah.

Chapter XXIII

Woe against wicked pastors, the scattered flock shall be gathered, Christ shall rule and save them, ver. 1 - 8. Against false prophets, ver. 9 - 32. And mockers of the true, ver. 33 - 40.

2 That feed - They are said to have fed this people, because it was their duty so to do.
5 Behold - Even the Jewish doctors, as well as the Christian interpreters, understand this as a prophecy of the Messiah who is called the branch, Isa 4:2 53:2. And here, he is called the righteous branch, not only because himself was righteous, but because he maketh his people righteous. Shall execute - Protecting the innocent, and defending his people throughout the world, judging the prince of the world, and by his spirit governing his people.
6 Judah - During the reign and kingdom of the Messiah the people of God typified by Judah and Israel shall be saved with a spiritual salvation, and God will be a special protection to them. And this - The name wherewith this branch shall be called, shall be, The Lord our righteousness. This place is an eminent proof of the Godhead of Christ, he is here called Jehovah, and what is proper to God alone, namely to justify, is here applied to Christ. He who knew no sin, was made sin, (that is, a sacrifice for sin) for us, that we might be made, the righteousness of God in him.
8 They shall dwell - Possibly part of this prophecy remains yet to be accomplished for the Jews are not yet come to dwell in their own land.
9 Like a man - And he was even astonished and stupefied, and like a drunken man, at the apprehensions of the wrath of the Lord ready to be revealed against them, and considering also what words the holy God had put into his mouth, to speak against them.
10 Adulterers - Under this term all species of uncleanness are comprehended. Swearing - By false - swearing, or by idle and profane swearing. The pleasant places - The wrath of God was extended to all places whether more or less inhabited. Their courses - The prophets did not only err in single acts, but the whole course of their actions was evil, and particularly their power, rule and government, was not right.
13 They prophesied - Pretending they had their instructions from Baal, and so caused the ten tribes to err, which then were called Israel in contradistinction to Judah.
16 Hearken not - People are under no religious obligation to hear any thing but the revealed will of God, and are not to obey those that call to them for what that doth not call to them.
18 For who - Which of those prophets, that prophesy such terrible things against this city is a privy - counsellor to God? The words seem to be the words of the false prophets.
20 The anger - The prophet speaks of the judgment as of a messenger, which should not return till it had done its errand, and executed what God had resolved it should effect. Ye shall consider - And though you will not now believe it, yet hereafter when it shall be too late, you shall consider it perfectly.
28 What is the wheat - There is as much difference between my will and their dreams, as there is betwixt the chaff and the wheat.
30 That steal - That conspire together what to say to deceive the people, and so steal what they say one from another.
31 He - That is, the Lord saith.
33 What is - The false prophets, and corrupt priests, would ordinarily mock the true prophets; and ask them what was the burden of the Lord.
34 That shall say - That is, that shall in derision say thus, mocking at my threatenings. And his house - I will not only punish him, but his whole family.
35 Thus shall ye say - I will have you speak more reverently of me and my prophets.
36 Mention no more - Not in scorn and derision. For - These false and irreverent speeches which are in every man's mouth, shall be burdensome to them, shall bring down vengeance upon them. Perverted - Because you have derided, the words of God, the living God.
37 Thus shalt thou say - To my true prophet. You shall speak to them reverently.
38 Because - Because you go on in your scoffing.

Chapter XXIV

Under the type of good and bad figs, ver. 1 - 3. He fore - shews the return of some from captivity, ver. 4 - 7. and the ruin of Zedekiah and the rest, ver. 8 - 10.

1 And behold - Probably a vision.
5 Acknowledge - I will acknowledge them for their good; I will shew them favour, being of the number of those who were not leaders to sin, but led away by the ill example of others, and who being carried away grew sensible of their sins, and so accepted of the punishment of their iniquities.

Chapter XXV

Their disobedience to the prophets reproved, ver. 1 - 7. The seventy years of captivity foretold, ver. 8 - 11. and after that the destruction of Babylon, ver. 12 - 14. By a cup of wine is foreshewn the destruction of all nations, ver. 15 - 33. The howling of the shepherds, ver. 34 - 38.

9 Nebuchadnezzar - In this work shall be my servant; though you will not be my servants in obeying my commands.
10 Moreover - Nay, I will not only deprive you of your mirth, but of those things that are necessary for you, as necessary as bread and light, the millstone shall not move, you shall not have the light so much as of a candle.
12 Accomplished - Counted from the time that the Jews were carried away in the time of Jeconiah or Jehoiakim, 2Kings 24:15,16. Desolations - This was fulfilled by Darius, the king of Persia, Dan 4:31, of these seventy Nebuchadnezzar reigned thirty six, 2Kings 25:27. Evil - merodach thirty two, and Belshazzar at least two, Dan 8:1.
15 The cup - God made Jeremiah to see the appearance of such a cup in a vision.
20 Of Uz - Some part of Arabia Petraea, near to Idumaea. Of the Philistines - Uzzah, Ekron, Ashdod, and Askelon, were four of their cities, the fifth which was Gath is not here named. For before this time it was destroyed, either by Psammeticus, father to Pharaoh Necho, or by Tartan, captain general to Sargon, king of Assyria, of whom read, Isa 20:1, that he took Ashdod, which may be the reason that here mention is made of no more than the remnant of Ashdod.
22 Beyond the sea - Probably those parts of Syria that coasted upon the mid - land sea.
23 Tema - Tema descended from Ishmael, Gen 25:15, his posterity inhabited in Arabia, Isa 21:13,14, where they are joined with those of Dedan. Buz - Buz was one of the posterity of Nahor, Gen 22:21. These were people mixed with the Saracens or Arabians.
25 Zimri - Those descended from Zimran, Abraham's son by Keturah, Gen 25:2. Elam - The Persians. The Medes - The Medes came from Madai the son of Japhet.
26 The north - All under the government of the Chaldeans. Of Sheshach - And the king of Babylon, who was last of all to drink of this cup of the Lord's fury.
34 Shepherds - Shepherds and the principal of the flock, in this place mean civil rulers. A pleasant vessel - Like a crystal glass, or some delicate vessel, which breaks in pieces and cannot again be set together.
38 Because - The effects of this rising up of God out of his covert is the desolation of the land through the fierceness of the enemy, caused by the fierce anger of God.

Chapter XXVI

The prophet, by God's command, in the court of the temple, threatens that the temple shall be as Shiloh, and the land a curse: exhorts to repentance, ver. 1 - 7. He is apprehended and arraigned, ver. 8 - 11. His apology, ver. 12 - 15. The princes clear him by the example of Micah, ver. 16 - 19. and of Urijah, ver. 20 - 23. and by the care of Ahikam, ver. 24.

10 When - When the nobles, and other civil magistrates, heard of the tumult, they came from the king's court, where the nobles and great officers of nations usually are, to the temple. At the entry - It was the place where their sanhedrim, who were to judge of false prophets, were wont to sit.
11 The priests - "In the corrupt state of all kingdoms, the ecclesiastical officers always were the greatest enemies to the faithful ministers of God." They speak to the members of the court who are called princes, and to the people who were in the court.
18 Micah - This was that Micah, whose prophecies are part of holy writ, as appears by Micah 1:1 3:12, where are the very words of the prophecy here mentioned, the substance of whose prophecy was the same with this, that Zion should be plowed up, and the place where the temple stood, should become so desolate that trees should grow there, as in a forest.
19 Thus - Now, if we should take a quite contrary course, and put this man to death, we should do ourselves no good, but procure great evil against our souls; that is against ourselves.
20 And there was - This is a story which we have recorded in no other part of scripture. They are probably the words of some others, who were enemies to Jeremiah.
23 Cast his body - Not in the sepulchers of the prophets, but amongst the vulgar people.
24 Nevertheless - Tho' Jeremiah's enemies pleaded this instance of Urijah, a case judged in this very king's reign; yet the hand, that is, the power and interest of Ahikam, one of Josiah's counsellors, and the father of Gedaliah, was with Jeremiah.

Chapter XXVII

The prophet sends yokes to five neighbouring kings, thereby foreshewing their subjection to Nebuchadnezzar, ver. 1 - 7. He exhorts them to yield, and not to believe false prophets, ver 8 - 11. The like he doth to Zedekiah, ver. 12 - 18. The remnant of the vessels shall be carried to Babylon, and continue there 'till the appointed time, ver. 19 - 22.

2 Thus saith - God commands the prophet to procure some yokes with bonds to make them more fast; and to put one of them upon his own neck, that therein he might be a type both to his own people, and also the people afterward mentioned, that they should be in bondage to the king of Babylon.
3 Of Edom - These nations were neighbours to the Jews, and their princes had their ambassadors resident in Jerusalem.
7 All nations - That is, all these nations. His son - And Evil - Merodach his son, and Belshazzar his grand - child. Until - Until the period of his kingdom shall come, which was after seventy years, according to chap.29:10.

Chapter XXVIII

Hananiah's false prophecy: Jeremiah's answer, ver. 1 - 9. Hananiah breaks Jeremiah's yoke: he foretells an iron yoke, and Hananiah's death, ver. 10 - 17.

1 The fourth year - Perhaps the fourth year of the sabbatical course is here intended. Of Gibeon - it is probable from the place where he lived, which was one of the cities of the priests; that he was a priest.
12 Then - Some time after.
13 But - Thou hast further incensed God against them, and provoked him to make their judgment heavier.
17 Died - Within two months after Jeremiah had thus prophesied; so dangerous a thing it is for ministers to teach people contrary to the revealed will of God.

Chapter XXIX

Jeremiah's letter to the captives in Babylon, to be quiet there, ver. 1 - 7. Not to believe false prophets; nor expect to return 'till after fifty years, ver. 8 - 14. The destruction of those who remained in Judah for their disobedience, ver. 15 - 19. The fearful end of two lying prophets, ver. 20 - 23. Shemaiah's letter against Jeremiah, ver. 24 - 29. Who reads his doom, ver. 30 - 32.

1 Captives - There were two carryings into Babylon, the latter about eleven or twelve years after the former, the first was in the time of Jehoiakim, When the princes, and all the mighty men of valour, even ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and smiths were carried away.
3 By the hand - Zedekiah having some occasion to send two messengers to Babylon. Jeremiah knowing that as there were false prophets at Jerusalem, who fed people with hopes of a speedy return, so there were some with them in Babylon, writes the following letter, and sends it by these two messengers, to quiet the peoples minds.
10 After - From this text it appears that the seventy years captivity, were to be accounted from the first carrying into captivity in the time of Jehoiakim, so that eleven years of it were elapsed, before Zedekiah was carried away.
11 To give - This deliverance will not depend upon your merits, but upon my own mercy, and kind thoughts and purposes I have for the seed of Abraham my servant, and I am resolved in my own thoughts what to do, I intend not the blotting out of the name of Israel from the earth, but to give such an end to their trouble as themselves expect and desire.
15 Because - The prophet here turns his speech to some wicked Jews, that were in Babylon, or in Judea.
16 Of the king - Zedekiah.
24 Nehelamite - It is probable there was such a place as Nehelam, from whence he was.
26 Priest - Zephaniah was the second priest. In the stead - In the stead signifies, that thou shouldest be like the good high priest Jehoiada. Mad - That thou mightest take care of persons, who being mad or frantick make themselves prophets.

Chapter XXX

God shews Jeremiah the deliverance and return of the Jews, ver. 1 - 9. He comforts Jacob, ver. 10 - 17. Their return shall be gracious. Wrath on the wicked, ver. 18 - 24.

8 In that day - In the day when God should deliver the seed of Jacob out of trouble. His yoke - The yoke of the king of Babylon, that power of his, which for seventy years he exercised over the Jews. Of him - Of the Jews.
9 But - Either this must be understood of the kingdom of Christ, under which the Jews that received him were made spiritually free: or there is a time yet to come, when this ancient people of God shall be restored to a farther civil liberty than they have enjoyed ever since the captivity of Babylon.
11 In measure - Not in equity only, but with moderation. Unpunished - But yet God will not let his own people go unpunished, that by it they may be reclaimed, and the world may take notice that God is of purer eyes than that he can, in any persons, behold iniquity.
12 For - They had sinned to that degree that God had resolved they should go into captivity.
13 No medicine - The prophet's design was to convince them, that there was no present remedy, but patience, though their false prophets might promise a cure.
14 Thy lovers - The Egyptians and Assyrians.
23 A continuing - Not a sudden blast, that shall presently go over, but a vengeance that shall abide.
24 Consider - And though at present they will not consider, yet afterward, when they see things come to pass, then they shall consider what I have told them.

Chapter XXXI

The restoration of Israel published, ver. 1 - 14. Rachel mourning is comforted, ver. 15 - 17. Ephraim repenting is brought home, ver. 18 - 21. Christ promised, ver. 22 - 26. His care over the church, ver. 27 - 30. His new covenant, ver. 31 - 34. The stability and enlargement of the church, ver. 35 - 40.

2 To rest - In Canaan.
5 Samaria - Samaria was the metropolis of the ten tribes. Mountains are convenient for vineyards, being free from shades and exposed to the sun. Shall plant - God promises them a liberty to plant, and that they should enjoy their plantations, eating them as common things, which they could not do 'till the fifth year.
6 Arise - This was fulfilled under the gospel; for both Galilee and Samaria received the gospel.
9 With weeping - Some think that it had been better translated, they went weeping; for though the verb be the future tense in the Hebrew, yet that tense has often the signification of the preterperfect tense, thus it answereth, Psa 126:5,6. He that goeth forth weeping, bearing precious seed, shalt doubtless come again rejoicing. There is a weeping for joy, as well as for sorrow, and thus the text corresponds with that, Zech 12:10. I will pour upon them the spirit of grace and supplications, and they shall look upon him whom they have pierced, and mourn. By rivers - And they shall have no want as they had when they came out of Egypt, through the wilderness, where they often wanted water.
11 Hath redeemed - God will as certainly do it, as if he had already done it. In their deliverance as well from Babylon as Egypt, they were types of the deliverance of God's people, by Christ; as well as in their entering into Canaan, they were types of the saints, entering into heaven.
12 And sing - All the phrases in this verse signify one thing, the happy state of the Jews, after their return from captivity. The height of Zion means the temple. A watered garden - They shall be a beautiful, flourishing, and growing people. Soul seems here to be taken for the whole man. Not sorrow - In that manner they have been. But under these expressions is also promised the spiritual joy which the true Israel of God will have under the gospel, and the eternal joy they shall have in heaven.
15 In Ramah - That is, in Canaan, and particularly in Ramah, where Nebuzar - adan, chap.40:1, disposed of the prisoners he had taken, setting some at liberty, ordering others to death, and carrying the rest away to Babylon, which caused a bitter weeping and lamentation. Rachel - Rachel is here brought in, having been buried near that place, as if she were risen up from the grave, and lamented the Jewish nation which came out of her loins (for so Benjamin did, which was one of the two tribes that made the kingdom of Judah.) Were not - Because her children either were not absolutely, being slain by the pestilence, the famine, and the sword of the king of Babylon, or were no longer her children, being transplanted into Babylon. And there was a lamentation like this, when Herod caused the infants of two years old to be slain in Bethlehem, and in the coasts round about Bethlehem, of which Ramah was one.
18 I have heard - The prophet here shews the change that would be wrought in the hearts of the Israelites preceding this return from their captivity. As a bullock - Which ordinarily are very unruly when they are first put into it.
19 Surely - After God had changed our hearts, we repented. I smote - After God had instructed us, by his prophets, by our afflictions, and by his Holy Spirit, we smote upon our thighs in testimony of our sorrow. The reproach - The just punishment of the sins which I had long ago committed.
20 For since - From the time I spake against him by my threatenings, I remember him with the affection and compassion of a father.
21 Set up - Thou shalt return to these cities which thou now leavest, therefore take good notice of the way, set up marks by which thou mayest know it again, make thee pillars or some high heaps of stones in the way, mind well the way that the Assyrians and the Babylonians carried thee, for thou shalt come back the same way.
22 Backsliding - Running after idols; or seeking help from foreign nations, instead of applying to God. A woman - This seems to be a promise of the Jewish church in its time, and of the gospel - church, prevailing over all its enemies; though, considering the fewness of the church's members, with the multitude of its enemies, and their power, it seemed as strange a thing, as for a woman to prevail against a strong and mighty man.
23 The Lord of hosts - These prophecies of the restoration of the Jews, are ordinarily prefaced with these two attributes of God, the one of which asserts his power to do the thing promised; the other his goodness to his people.
25 For - The words are a promise, that God would give his people abundance of ease and plenty.
26 Upon this I awaked - Probably this revelation was made to Jeremiah, in a dream.
27 I will sow - That is, I will exceedingly multiply them, both with men and with cattle.
31 Behold - And not only with the Jews, but all those who should be ingrafted into that Olive. It is not called the new covenant, because it was as to the substance new, for it was made with Abraham, Gen 17:7, and with the Jews, Deut 26:17,18, but because it was revealed after a new manner, more fully and particularly, plainly and clearly. Nor was the ceremonial law any part of it, as it was to the Jews, a strict observance of that. It was likewise new in regard of the efficacy of the spirit attending it, in a much fuller and larger manner.
32 Not according - The covenant which God made with the Jews when they came out of the land of Egypt, was on God's part the law which he gave them, with the promises annexed; on their part (which made it a formal covenant) their promise of obedience to it.
33 With - That is, with those who are Jews inwardly. And write it - The prophet's design is here to express the difference betwixt the law and the gospel. The first shews duty, the latter brings the grace of regeneration, by which the heart is changed, and enabled for duty. All under the time of the law that came to salvation, were saved by this new covenant; but this was not evidently exhibited; neither was the regenerating grace of God so common under the time of the law, as it hath been under the gospel.
34 I will forgive - God makes the root of all this grace to be the free pardon, and the remission of their sins.
36 Those ordinances - The ordinances of nature, which are God's establishments for the working of natural causes in their order.
37 I will cast off - That is, I will never cast off all the seed of Israel.
38 The city - Shall be built round, as largely as ever.
39 The line - That is, it shall be built round about upon its old foundations.
40 The valley - A valley, so called from the multitude of Sennacherib's army slain there. Of the ashes - So called from the ashes of the sacrifices carried thither. Holy - All these places shall be parts of the holy city, and God's name shall be sanctified, and he shall be worshipped in them all. For ever - If we interpret the word for ever of a perpetuity, the church of God must here be understood, against which the gates of hell shall never prevail.

Chapter XXXII

Jeremiah in the siege of Jerusalem being imprisoned by Zedekiah, buys a field, takes witnesses, draws a writing, seals and delivers it to Baruch to preserve, as tokens of the peoples return, ver. 1 - 15. He prays with admiration of God's majesty and works; and represents his own conflict, ver. 16 - 25. God confirms the captivity for their sins, ver. 26 - 35. but promises a gracious return, ver. 36 - 44.

5 Until I visit him - Perhaps in mercy; it is certain Zedekiah was not put to death, only carried to Babylon, where some think he afterward found favour with the king of Babylon.
9 The money - The price of land was strangely fallen at this time, when the enemy was besieging the chief city of the country.
11 I took - It is probable, that upon such sales among the Jews, two instruments were made, the one sealed up, to be kept by the purchaser, the other open, to be shewed to the judges, and by them ratified.
12 Baruch - This Baruch (chap.46:4,26,) was a scribe, and an attendant upon Jeremiah. Witnesses - He made this purchase with all the usual formalities; he signed and sealed it before witnesses, and delivered it to Baruch to keep, in the presence of all the Jews.
20 Who hast set signs - Who didst wonders of justice in the land of Egypt, such as are remembered even to this day.
24 The mounts - Rather engines of war with which those nations used to batter walls, or to shoot great stones into places besieged.
34 Have set - Their idols.
39 One heart - I will give them union and concord, one mind and judgment. One way - They shall all worship me according, to the rule I have given them.
40 I will make - This promise manifestly relates to those Jews that should receive the Lord Jesus Christ, unless it be to be understood of a national conversion of the Jews, not yet effected.

Chapter XXXIII

The taking of Jerusalem, carrying away the people, their return, ver. 1 - 8. Joyful state and settled government, ver. 9 - 14. Christ the branch of righteousness, his everlasting kingdom and priesthood, and blessed seed, ver. 15 - 26.

2 The Lord - The maker thereof, of Jerusalem, or of these promises, his name is Jehovah; he hath a sufficiency in himself to make good his word.
5 They - The Jews sally out and fight with their enemies, but to no purpose, but to fill their houses with their own dead bodies, whom I will cause in my anger to be slain.
6 I will cure - The miserable disturbed state of a nation being compared to wounds and sickness, the restoring of it to a peaceable prosperous state is fitly called its health and cure. I will bring them again to a quiet and peaceable state in which they shall abide many days.
9 They shalt fear - And not only so but shall fear to engage against a nation so beloved and favoured by me.
12 Is desolate - That is, a great part of which is, and the other part shall soon be desolate.
13 Shall pass - So as to keep tally of them, as they were wont to do both morning and evening in those countries.
15 The branch - The kings they had hitherto had of the line of David, were most of them unrighteous men, but God promises that after the captivity, they should have a branch of David who would execute judgment and righteousness in the land, for the protection and government of those that feared him.
16 Saved - It is the opinion of some that a spiritual salvation and security is promised under these expressions, but by the most and best interpreters, a temporal salvation. This was typical of that spiritual and eternal salvation which is promised to the true Israel of God; as their rest in Canaan typified that rest which remaineth for the people of God. The Lord our righteousness - There is no such name any where given, either to the Jewish or Christian church, as the Lord our righteousness, but the full import of that name is spoken of Christ, Isa 45:23, which text is applied to Christ, Rom 14:11 Phil 2:10.
17 David - That is, apparently a promise relating to Christ, for David's line had failed long since, had it not been continued in Christ, whose kingdom is and shall be an everlasting kingdom.
18 A man - That is, a ministry to abide in the church to the end of the world, nor is it unusual for God in the Old Testament to express promises to be fulfilled under the gospel by expressions proper to the Old Testament.
20 My covenant - The same with the ordinances mentioned, chap.31:35. God's law established in the course of natural causes, by virtue of which the day and night, orderly succeed one another. The succession of the gospel ministry in the church of God to abide for ever, shall be as certain as the succession of darkness and light.
22 Of David - Christ is himself called David, whose seed and whose Levites are multiplied in the multiplying of Christians and of faithful ministers under the gospel, which are the things here promised.
24 The two families - The families of David and Aaron. Despised - Spoken scornfully of my people, as if they should never be a nation more, having rulers of themselves, and a ministry.

Chapter XXXIV

The captivity of king Zedekiah, and the city, ver. 1 - 7. The princes and people by solemn covenant, according to the law, dismiss their bond servants, but the Babylonians leaving the siege, they reassume them, ver. 8 - 11. For this God threatens a return of the enemy, and the destruction of Jerusalem, ver. 12 - 22.

5 Ah Lord - The Jews in their chronology, give us the form of the lamentation thus. Alas! Zedekiah is dead, who drank the dregs of all ages: that is, who was punished for the sins of all former ages.
17 Behold - You shall perish by the sword, famine and pestilence, and those of you who escape them, shall be slaves, in many nations.
18 Cut the calf - It seems these Jews in their making of the solemn covenant with God about releasing their servants used this rite; they caused a calf, or heifer to be cut in pieces, and the parts to be laid in the temple, right over - against one another; then they recited this covenant, and passed between the parts of the heifer so cut; silently agreeing that God should cut them in pieces like that beast if they did not make their words good.
22 Behold - I will put into their hearts to return.

Chapter XXXV

By the obedience of the Rechabites, ver. 1 - 11. God condemns the Jews disobedience, ver. 12 - 17. The Rechabites are blessed, ver. 18, 19.

1 The word - This is another evidence that the prophecies of this book are not left us in that order wherein they were delivered; for those which we had in the two or three foregoing chapters being in the time of Zedekiah, must needs be ten or eleven years after this.
2 Rechabites - These Rechabites had their name from Rechab their father, descended from Hemath, a Kenite, who is also called Hobab, Judg 4:11, or Jethro the father in law of Moses.
4 Igdaliah - A prophet. The princes - The chamber were the princes were wont to meet.
6 Jonadab - Jonadab of whom we read, 2Kings 10:15, was the father, that is the progenitor of the Rechabites, at three hundred years distance.
7 That ye may live - Jonadab cautions his sons by a thrifty, sober, laborious life, to which they had been bred, in keeping flocks, to avoid any thing which might expose them to the envy or hatred of the people amongst whom they were come to sojourn.
10 Tents - Moveable habitations, which they could with little labour remove to feed their flocks.
19 For ever - For ever here signifies the ever of the Jewish state, or church.

Chapter XXXVI

Jeremiah causes Baruch to write his prophecy; and publickly to read it, ver. 1 - 10. The princes send to fetch the roll and read it, ver. 11 - 18. They advise Baruch and Jeremiah to hide themselves, ver. 19. The king tears part of the roll, and burns it, ver. 20 - 26. Jeremiah denounces his judgment, ver. 27 - 31. Baruch writes a new copy, ver. 32.

2 A roll - Parchments, which anciently were their books. All the words - All the revelations he had from God for twenty - two years last past. God would have them recorded, that there might be a memorial of them, that so the truth of them might appear, when God should bring them to pass; the time of which now drew near.
6 Upon the fasting day - It was undoubtedly, because of the concourse of people which the prophet knew would that day be in the temple, that he chose that day, when some would be present from all parts of Judah.
10 Then read - Most likely out of some window, or balcony, the people being below, and hearing it.
18 He pronounced - This could not but add to the princes fear, they must needs conceive that without a special influence of God, it had been impossible, that Jeremiah should have called to mind all that he had spoken at several times in so many years.
22 The ninth month - Answered to part of our November and December.
23 He - The king not having patience to hear above three or four columns, or periods, cut it in pieces and burned it in the fire.
25 Elnathan - These princes seemed to have had a greater dread of God upon their hearts than the rest.
26 Hid them - God by his providence kept them both out of their hands; directing them to find such a place of recess as the kings messengers could not find out.
30 None to sit - That is, none that shall be king any considerable time. Jeconiah his son was set up, but kept his throne but three months.

Chapter XXXVII

The Egyptians raise the siege of the Chaldeans: and king Zedekiah sends to Jeremiah, to pray and enquire of the Lord for them, ver. 1 - 5. He prophesies the Chaldeans return and victory, ver. 6 - 10. He is apprehended for a fugitive, beaten, and put into prison, ver. 11 - 15. He assures Zedekiah of the captivity; and, entreating for liberty, obtains some favour, ver. 16 - 21.

10 And burn it - When God is resolved upon an effect, the instruments are little to be regarded. It is not the arm of flesh, but the power of God which is in that case to be considered.
12 Went forth - Jeremiah knowing the city would suddenly be taken, and that he could be no farther useful to the people, taking advantage of the withdrawing of the Chaldean army, resolves to go to his own country, to Anathoth, in the crowd of people that were going out.
13 Of Benjamin - The gate that looked toward the inheritance of that tribe.
16 The dungeon - The Hebrew words signify some pit, or deep hole, where were some cells or apartments, in which they were wont to keep those whom they judged great malefactors.
17 Is there - Hath God revealed any thing to thee, concerning the issue of the return of the Chaldean army.


Jeremiah prophesies; is by the princes, with the king's permission, cast into a dungeon; but is by Ebed - melech, with the king's consent, taken out again, ver. 1 - 13. He has a secret conference with the king, in which he counsels him by yielding, to save his life, ver. 14 - 23. By the king's command he conceals the conference from the princes, ver. 24 - 27. He abides in prison 'till Jerusalem is taken, ver. 28.

5 For the king - I see I am as it were no king. I can do nothing against you, you will do what you please.
10 Thirty men - Probably the king commanded Ebed - melech to take thirty men to guard him against any opposition.
19 Lest they - Lest the Chaldeans should deliver me into the hands of those Jews which have fallen to them.
22 The women - Thou that art afraid of the insultings of men, shalt fall under the insultings of the women. Thy friends - For this thou mayest thank thy priests, and false prophets. And they - Have forsaken thee, every one shifting for himself.

Chapter XXXIX

Jerusalem is taken: Zedekiah's sons are slain, his eyes put out, he is sent to Babylon, All the nobles of Judah are slain: the city is burnt, and the chief of the people carried captives, ver. 1 - 10. Nebuchadrezzar's charge concerning Jeremiah, ver. 11 - 14. God's promise to Ebed - melech, ver. 15 - 18.

1 Tenth month - This month answers to part of our December and January.
3 The middle gate - The city was encompassed with two walls, before they came to the wall of the temple; the gate in the inner wall is supposed to have been that which is called the middle gate. They would not at first venture farther, 'till they might without hazarding their persons.
5 Riblah - Riblah was upon the borders of Canaan. Zedekiah was a tributary to the king of Babylon, and so subject to his power, having made a covenant with him, and secured his allegiance by his oath to him.
12 Take him - It is probable, that Nebuchadnezzar had been informed, Jeremiah had constantly told the king, that the Chaldeans should take the city, and as steadily persuaded both the king and princes to surrender it to them.
15 Now the word - These four verses mention a matter that happened before the things mentioned in the foregoing verses.

Chapter XL

Jeremiah being set free by Nebuchadnezzar, goes to Gedaliah, ver. 1 - 6. to whom the remaining Jews repair, ver. 7 - 12. Johanan revealing Ishmael's conspiracy, is not believed, ver. 13 - 16.

1 Ramah - Ramah was a city in the tribe of Benjamin near Gibeon. Babylon - Jeremiah was by mistake and expressly contrary to the king's orders carried amongst the other prisoners; probably the captain of the guard at that place called over his prisoners, and among them found the prophet contrary to his expectation.
5 Now - Jeremiah before he was gone out of the presence of Nebuzar - adan, declaring that he was more inclined to stay in his own country, Nebuzar - adan bid him, Go back.
8 Ishmael - It is likely these were commanders of parties, which either were within the city 'till it was taken, and then escaped, or where somewhere in the country, and not so much regarded by the Chaldeans, who were more intent upon the conquest of the city, than pursuing these little parties.
10 I will dwell - I have choice made of Mizpah, a city upon the frontiers, to make my residence, it being a convenient place for me to receive orders from the king of Babylon. But ye - Gather such fruits as the country affords, as you use to do in the times of peace.
12 Returned - Probably upon the king of Babylon's first invading Judah, many fled, and more as he went on his conquests, over - running the country; and it is likely at the taking of the city, many escaped, and fled into several countries, as they had opportunity, or judged this or that country would be safest; some fled to Moab, some to Ammon some to Edom, some one way, and some another: but when they heard that the king of Babylon had set a governor of their own religion and country over them, they came back to him; and there being few people left in the land, which was wonderfully fruitful, they gathered plenty of grapes, and other summer fruits.
13 Moreover - They had been with him before, but now they come to discover a conspiracy against his life.

Chapter XLI

Ishmael, under a colour of friendship kills Gedaliah and others, both Jews and Chaldeans, ver. 1 - 9. He purposes to carry the residue captive to the Ammonites, but they are rescued from him by Johanan, who intends to flee into Egypt, ver. 10 - 18.

1 Now - Three months after the city was taken. Ishmael - The same Ishmael that came to Gedaliah, ver.8,9, to whom he sware protection; only here we are told he was of the royal blood, which might both raise his spirits, as having a more legal pretence to the government, and rendered him a fitter instrument, for Baalis the king or queen of the Ammonites to make use of. The princes - Some of the princes, who had escaped the army of the king of Babylon.
3 Slew - All those who were about the court of Gedaliah.
4 No man - No man who lived at any distance from Mizpah.
5 There came men - Who possibly had not heard of the temple being burnt. Cut themselves - With all indications of mourning used in those countries.
8 He forebare - His covetousness prevailed over his cruelty.

Chapter XLII

Johanan and the people desire Jeremiah to enquire of God, promising obedience to his will, ver. 1 - 6. Jeremiah assures them of safety in Judea, ver. 7 - 12. and destruction in Egypt, ver. 13 - 18. Reproves their hypocrisy and obstinacy, ver. 19 - 22.

6 Good or evil - Whether grateful or ungrateful to us.
10 I repent - I am satisfied with the punishment your nation hath undergone, and as to the remainder, will change the course of my providence.

Chapter XLIII

Johanan and the commanders discredit Jeremiah's prophecy, ver. 1 - 3. and with the people, carry him and Baruch into Egypt, ver. 4 - 7. He prophesies by a type, the conquest of Egypt by the Babylonians, ver. 8 - 13.

7 Tahpanhes - It was at this time the place where the king of Egypt made his residence.
12 Carry them - He shall carry away both the idols, and the inhabitants of Egypt captive. With the land - With the spoils of the land of Egypt, he shall clothe his army.
13 Beth - shemesh - Beth - shemesh is the name of a city, which had its name from a famous temple of the sun.

Chapter XLIV

Jeremiah represents to the people in Egypt, the former sins and punishment of Judah, ver. 1 - 10. He prophesies of their destruction in Egypt, ver. 11 - 14. Their obstinacy, ver. 15 - 19. Threatened, ver. 20 - 28. For a sign, the destruction of Egypt is foretold, ver. 29, 30.

1 At Migdol - It seems the Jews that went into Egypt had planted themselves at these four places. Migdol was a city upon the borders of the Red Sea. Noph was a city, which the Greeks and Latines called Memphis; it is thought to be that, which is now called Cairo. Pathros was the province, since called Thebais.
14 For none - Only such shall escape, as have been forced into Egypt against their wills; and as did not fall in with the idolatry of the Egyptians.
15 All the men - It should seem those that did it were mostly women, and that they did it with some privacy, so that all their husbands did not know of it.
26 The Lord liveth - There shall not any be left alive of the Jews that are in Egypt, to swear The Lord God liveth.
29 This shall be a sign - Signs are usually antecedent to the thing signified, but the word is taken in a larger notion in this place for that which should attend the thing signified by it.

Chapter XLV

Jeremiah instructs and comforts Baruch, ver. 1 - 5.

3 I find no rest - Upon Baruch's reading the prophecies both he and Jeremiah were advised to hide themselves. This probably disturbed Baruch, and made him lament his condition.
5 Seek them not - Dost thou expect what none is like to meet with who feareth God? Upon all flesh - I am bringing calamities upon the whole nation.

Chapter XLVI

The overthrow of Pharaoh's army, ver. 1 - 12. The conquest of Egypt by Nebuchadrezzar, ver. 13 - 26. God's people comforted, ver. 27, 28.

1 The word - This verse contains the title of all the ensuing discourses; for, tho' there be some verses in these chapters that relate to the Jews, yet they are all concerning their restoration. The prophecies of judgments from the beginning of this chapter to the fifty - second, are all against foreign nations, which are called Gentiles.
4 Brigandines - Coats of mail.
6 Let not the swift - It is in vain for the swift to flee away, the mighty men shall not escape, but they shall stumble and fall at Carchemish, which was near the river Euphrates, and northward from Egypt.
9 And the Lydians - They were all auxiliaries to the Egyptians in this expedition.
10 Made drunk - These phrases only metaphorically signify, the great slaughter God would make that day amongst the Egyptians.
12 Stumbled - Stumbling one upon another, so that both those that went before, and those who followed after, should fall together.
14 Declare - Publish this over all the land of Egypt.
17 Pharaoh - Hath made a great noise, but it cometh to nothing. Passed - That is, he hath passed the time himself fixed when he would cone, and fight the Chaldeans.
18 Surely - He shall as certainly come and encompass you with his armies, as Tabor is encompassed with mountains, and as Carmel is by the sea.
20 A serpent - Egypt is now like an heifer that makes a great bellowing, but the time shall come when she shall make a lesser noise like the hissing of a serpent. With axes - For the Chaldeans shall come with an army, armed with battle - axes, as if they came to fell wood in a forest.
23 Tho' - Tho' it seem impenetrable.

Chapter XLVII

The destruction of the Philistines, Tyrians, Zidonians, and others by the seaside, ver. 1 - 7.

1 Before - In the time of the Philistines prosperity.
4 The day - Which God hath set, and appointed for their ruin. Caphtor - Tyre and Sidon were neighbours to the Philistines, and so were often called to their help. The Philistines and Caphtorim were related, for their first progenitors, Philistim and Caphtorim, were both the sons of Mizriam the son of Ham, one of the sons of Noah.
5 The remnant - Those who lived in the valleys near Ashkelon. But thyself - Why will you afflict yourselves, when all your mourning will do you no good.
6 O thou sword - Perhaps they are the words of the prophet, lamenting the havock which he made among the Philistines by the Chaldeans.
7 How - God lets the prophet know that he had given this sword its commission, and therefore it could not stop 'till Ashkelon and the people on the sea - shore were destroyed by it.

Chapter XLVIII

The judgment of Moab, ver. 1 - 6. for their pride, ver. 7 - 10. for their security and human confidence, ver. 11 - 15. especially for their contempt of God, and insolence towards his people, ver. 26 - 46. Their restoration, ver. 47.

2 Heshbon - Heshbon was one of the principal cities of the Moabites. Probably the enemies sat there in counsel, when they had taken it, against the other parts of the country.
3 Horoniam - Another city of Moab.
5 Luhith - To this city the Moabites fled for sanctuary, and flying made so great an out - cry that their enemies who pursued them heard it.
6 And be - Save your lives, though all ye have be lost.
7 Trusted - In thy idols. Chemosh - Chemosh was their principal idol.
9 Give wings - The Moabites have need of wings like a bird to escape that ruin which is coming upon them.
11 At ease - The Moabites ever since they began to be a people, have been a quiet people. Settled - Like a cask of wine, that has not been racked but has continued in the same state. Not emptied - A metaphor of wine which is drawn out from vessel to vessel, when it is drawn off the lees. It is expounded by the next words. Therefore - And this is the reason why they retain their old sins, pride, presumption, and luxury.
12 Wanderers - The Chaldeans, who wandered from their own country to conquer other people. Break his bottles - He had before compared the Moabites, to wine settled upon the lees, here he saith, that God would send those that should not only disturb, but destroy them.
13 Bethel - The golden calves, which Jeroboam set up at Dan and Bethel.
16 Is near - Josephus tells us this destruction came upon the Moabites five years after the siege of Jerusalem.
17 Staff - A staff and a rod are as well, ensigns of power and government, as instruments to punish offenders.
18 Dibon - Dibon, Aroer, and Ataroh were built by the children of Gad. It should seem the Moabites were not come into the possession of them. In thirst - It was a place well watered, but God threatens she should be in thirst, that is, driven into some dry, barren countries. The spoiler - The king of Babylon.
20 Arnon - Arnon was the name of a river; it was the border of Moab: probably the adjacent country or city might take its name from the river.
25 The horn - That is the beauty and the strength of Moab.
26 Drunken - Fill him with the intoxicating wine of God's vengeance.
27 Was he found - Why didst thou deal by Israel as men deal by thieves, when they are brought to shame?
28 O ye - Still the prophet speaks of the Moabites, as a people whose armies were routed, and calls to them to leave their houses in cities, not promising themselves any security, either to or from their houses, or from the walls of the cities, but to get them to rocks, which are naturally fortified, and from whence (if from any place) security may be promised.
30 I know - He shall never execute what he thinks to do. But - His boastings and his lies, still never effect his designs.
31 Kir - herez - A city of Moab.
32 Sibmah - Sibmah was famous in those days for vines. Jazer - Jazer was it seems first taken, and carried into captivity.
36 Pipes - The prophet means such pipes as they were wont to use at funerals, and other sad occasions.
40 He - Nebuchadnezzar shall come swiftly, and spread himself over Moab.
43 Fear - A variety of dangers upon all sides.
45 Heshbon - Heshbon was it seems a place of force. The crown - That is, the glory.
47 Bring again - It seems this is to be understood of a spiritual reduction of them, by calling them into the kingdom of the Messiah.

Chapter XLIX

The judgment of the Ammonites, ver. 1 - 5. Their restoration, ver. 6. The judgment of Edom, ver. 7 - 22. Of Damascus, ver. 23 - 27. Of Kedar, and Hazor, ver. 28 - 33. Of Elam, and its restoration, ver. 34 - 39.

1 No heir - During the long tract of time that there were wars between the Jews and Ammonites, the land of Gad and Reuben which lay beyond Jordan, fell into the hands of the Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites. Hence it is that the prophet saith, Hath Israel no sons? God had given that country of Gilead to Manasseh, Reuben, and Gad; and as mens estates ought to descend to their heirs, so this land should have descended to their posterity, but the Ammonites had taken and possessed it.
3 Ai - A city of the Ammonites, not the same mentioned, Josh 7:2, for that was on the other side Jordan. By the hedges - Where they might be hidden, and not so easily seen.
4 Flowing - Either flowing with water, or plenty of corn and grass.
5 Right forth - So that you shall be glad to flee, and never look back. Gather up - None will receive or entertain you.
6 I will bring - Probably this refers to the conversion of the Ammonites, as well as other Heathens, to Christ.
7 Edom - The Edomites were the posterity of Esau the eldest son of Isaac, but disinherited; the blessing being given to his younger brother Jacob, who was head of the twelve tribes of Israel. God promised him that he should have a fat, and plentiful country, tho' his brother should be his lord; and foretold, that he should break his brother's yoke from off his neck: the land of Seir was his country. The Edomites coasted southward upon Canaan, the Israelites passed by their coasts to go into Canaan, their way lay thro' Edom, but their king refusing to suffer them to go through, God ordered them to go another way. Balaam prophesied their ruin. They were enemies to the Israelites in the time of Saul, 1Sam 14:47, and David, 2Sam 8:14, and Amaziah, 2Kings 14:17, who slew of them ten thousand, and took Selah, calling it Jokteel. Many of the prophets foretold their ruin, Jeremiah in this place, Ezek 25:12 - 14 Joel 3:19 Amos 9:11,12, and others. Teman - Was a city of Edom.
8 Dedan - Was a city of Arabia joining to Idumea, Isa 21:13, they being neighbours to the Edomites are called to flee, and to get into caves, where they might dwell deep in the earth and be in some security.
9 If - Edom shall be totally destroyed; their destruction should not be like the gleaning of grapes, where the gatherers content themselves with taking the principal clusters: nor yet like the robbings of thieves, who take for their hunger, and when they have got enough leave the rest.
12 They - The Jews, who in comparison with others did not deserve to drink of the cup, yet have drank of it, and can you think to escape? When an Israelite hath not escaped the justice of God, an Edomite must not expect it.
13 Bozrah - Edom is expressed under the name of Bozrah, (a part for the whole) Bozrah being its principal city.
14 An ambassador - He speaks after the manner of earthly princes, who use to send their ambassadors to other princes to declare their minds to them. God hath inclined them to come against Edom.
19 Behold - The Edomites shall come up fiercely against Nebuchadrezzar, but will suddenly flee, yea even from their own country. Appoint - Into whose hands shall I give that country. For who - For I can do whatsoever I please. Will appoint - And who will appoint me a time to plead with men? Who is - Where is that king or potentate that will stand before me?
20 Teman - Edom and Teman signify the same thing. The least - The least of Nebuchadrezzar's forces shall drag them out of their lurking places.
23 Damascus - Being the head of this country, is put for the whole country. Hamath - Hamath and Arpad were two cities also of Syria. On the sea - Their inhabitants that live near the sea shall be troubled.
25 Of my joy - A city of great renown. The king of Syria is here supposed to speak.
27 Ben - hadad - Was the common name of the kings of Syria.
28 Kedar - Was one of the sons of Ishmael, whose posterity inhabited part of Arabia Petraea. Hazor was the head city to several kingdoms in Joshua's time.
29 They - The Chaldeans.
30 Flee - These seem to be the prophet's words.
31 Arise - The result of Nebuchadrezzar's counsels, giving charge to his armies to march against the Kedarens, who lived at ease and took no care, nor had any neighbours that could assist them.
34 Against Elam - Probably the Persians.
38 My throne - God calls the throne of Cyrus or Alexander his throne; because he gave it the conqueror.
39 But - We had the like promise as to Moab, chap.48:47, and as to Ammon, ver.49:6, the same latter days either signify after many days, or in the time of the Messiah. In the former sense it may refer to Cyrus, who conquered Persia. In the latter sense it refers to the spiritual liberty which some of these poor Heathens were brought into by the gospel. We read Acts 2:9, that some of the Elamites were at Jerusalem at pentecost, and were some of those converted to Christ.

Chapter L

The judgment of Babel, and the land of Chaldea, for their idolatry, tyranny and pride; with gracious promises of the redemption of Israel intermixed, ver. 1 - 46.

2 Bel - Bel and Merodach were the two principal idols of the Babylonians.
3 The north - From Media which lay northward to Babylon and Assyria.
4 In those days - In the days wherein God shall begin to execute judgment upon Babylon, (which was in the time of Cyrus) the children of Judah shall come out of captivity, and some of the children of Israel hearing that their brethren were gone out of Babylon, shall go up also from the several places into which they were disposed by the Assyrians: weeping for their sins, or for joy that God should shew them such mercy.
6 Their shepherds - Their civil and ecclesiastical governors have been a cause of it. The former by their wicked commands and example; the latter by example as well as doctrine. Turned them - To offer sacrifices unto idols. From mountain - From one idolatry to another. Forgotten - They have forgotten me.
7 Habitation - Some think this is a name here given to God, who indeed is the habitation of justice, but whether the Chaldeans would call him so, may be a question. Others therefore think the preposition in is understood, making this the aggravation of the Jews sins, that they were committed in a land which ought to have been an habitation of justice.
8 Remove - God commands his people to remove out of Babylon, and to go forth chearfully like the he - goats of a flock leading the way.
10 Satisfied - Satisfied with spoil and plunder.
11 Because - They rejoiced at the ruin of the Jews. Fat - The cause for which Babylon is threatened, was doubtless their luxury of all sorts commonly attending great wealth.
12 Mother - Your country, shall be ashamed of you, who are not able to defend her.
15 Given her hand - Acknowledging themselves overcome, and yielding. As she hath done - Unmerciful men find no mercy.
16 Every one - Either such strangers as for commerce had their abodes in Babylon, or such assistance as the Babylonians had gotten against their enemies.
17 Israel - The whole twelve tribes. Lions - Enemies cruel as lions had carried them into captivity.
20 Not found - God will no longer punish the sins of the Jews, they should be sought for as to punishment and not found. Reserve - Whom I save from the captivity of Babylon.
21 Merathaim - The names of some places which Cyrus took in his way to Babylon.
22 The land - Of Chaldea.
26 Open her store - houses - The granaries, or treasures of the Babylonians.
27 Bullocks - The great and rich men of Babylon.
28 The vengeance - The revenge which God had taken for his holy temple, which the Chaldeans had destroyed.
33 Together - Together in this place signifies no more than that they were both oppressed, or alike oppressed.
34 Plead - He will actually and readily effect it.
36 Dote - Their soothsayers and wizards shall dote, not foreseeing what will be. Dismayed - Their hearts shall fail them when this day comes.
37 Horses - Through they be full of chariots and horses, the enemy shall destroy them. Mingled people - People that were not native Chaldeans, but under their dominion.
38 Dried - This phrase has a plain reference to Cyrus's stratagem used in the surprize of Babylon; one part of it was fortified by the great river Euphrates, which Cyrus diverted by cutting several channels, 'till he had drained it so low, that it became passable for his army; others think that a want of rain is here threatened.
40 No man - Cyrus only made them tributaries, and took away their government. But Seleucus Nicanor, a Grecian prince, utterly destroyed Babylon, so that in the time of Adrian the Roman emperor, there was nothing left standing of that great city.

Chapter LI

The severe judgment of God against voluptuous, covetous, tyrannical and idolatrous Babel, in the revenge, and for the redemption of Israel, ver. 1 - 58. Jeremiah delivers the book of this prophecy to Seraiah, to be cast into Euphrates, in token of the perpetual sinking of Babylon, ver. 59 - 64.

5 Forsaken - Not utterly forsaken.
6 Soul - By soul is meant life, and by iniquity the punishment of the Babylonian's iniquity.
7 Drunken - She had made all the nations about her drunken with the Lord's fury. Mad - Through the misery they felt from her.
9 We - The prophet seems to personate the mercenary soldiers, saying, they would have helped Babylon, but there was no healing for her.
10 Some - These words are spoken in the person of the Jews, owning the destruction of Babylon to be the mighty work of God, and an act of justice, revenging the wrongs of his people.
12 Set up - These seem to be the prophet's words to the Babylonians, rousing them out of their security. Historians tell us that the city was fortified by walls of fifty cubits high, and two hundred cubits broad, and by a very deep and large ditch.
13 Waters - Babylon is said to dwell upon many waters, because the great river Euphrates, did not only run by it, but almost encompass it branching itself into many smaller rivers, which made several parts of the city, islands.
23 Break in pieces - The sense of all these three verses is the same; that God had made use, and was still making use of the Babylonians to destroy many nations, to spoil much people, wasting their goods, routing their armies, killing all sorts of their inhabitants.
25 Mountain - Babylon was very high for its power, and greatness, and had very high walls and towers, that it looked at a distance like an high rocky mountain. They had destroyed many people. Burnt - Thy cities and towers which appear like a mountain shall be burnt.
27 As caterpillars - The Median horses are compared to their insects, either with respect to their numbers, or in regard of the terror caused by them when they came, being a great plague to the places which they infected.
29 The land - Babylon, or the land of Chaldea.
31 At one end - Cyrus entered the city at one end, by the channel of the river, which he had drained, and surprized Belshazzar in the midst of his feast.
32 The passages - The passages over the river Euphrates, and all the other passages by which the Babylonians might make their escape, were guarded with soldiers. Reeds - On the border of the river Euphrates were vast quantities of great and tall reeds, which with the mud in which they stood, were as another wall to the city; but the Medes had burnt them so as the way was open.
33 Threshing floor - Babylon had been a threshing instrument, by which, and a threshing - floor in which God had threshed many other nations; God now intended to make it as a threshing - floor wherein he would thresh the Chaldeans. Tread her - So they used to prepare their threshing - floors against the time of harvest. The time - The harvest which the justice of God would have from the ruin of the Chaldeans.
34 Me - The prophet speaks this in the name of the Jews. Cast me out - As beasts of prey eat what they please of other beasts they have preyed upon, and leave the rest in the field.
36 Dry up - Alluding to what Cyrus did.
38 They - The Babylonians, upon the taking of their city.
39 Heat - When they shall grow hot with wine, I will make them a feast of another nature. Interpreters judge that Belshazzar, Dan 5:1, made a feast to a thousand of his Lords, when he and his wives, and concubines, drank wine in the vessels belonging to the temple, during which feast the city was taken. And not awake - While they were merry with their wine, they fell into a sleep which they never awoke out of.
41 Sheshach - A name given to the city of Babylon.
42 The sea - A multitude of enemies.
44 Bel - Bel was the principal Babylonian idol. Bring forth - All the vessels of the temple, 2Chron 36:7, and whatever gifts the Babylonians had presented to him. The wall - And the city of Babylon shall be also ruined.
45 Go out of her - At all hazards escape for your lives.
48 Then - All the creatures in heaven and earth shall rejoice at the vengeance which God shall take upon Babylon.
49 Of all the earth - This term must be understood in a restrained sense; the Chaldeans coming up from all parts of Chaldea to help Babylon, were slain there, as by the means of Babylon the Israelites were slain that came from all parts of Judea to help Jerusalem.
50 Ye - Ye Jews, leave Babylon as soon as liberty is proclaimed. Remember - And remember in Judea the great things both of justice and mercy which God hath done.
51 We - We Jews are ashamed to hear the enemies reproaching us, for our God, or for our religion. Strangers - Pagans that were strangers to the commonwealth of Israel, are come, not to worship, but to plunder, the sanctuaries of the Lord; even into the courts of the priests and of the Israelites; yea, into the most holy place.
52 Wherefore - For this profanation of my holy place, I will be revenged not only upon their idols, but upon the worshippers of them, and cause a groaning of wounded men over all the country of the Chaldeans.
55 The great voice - The noises caused from multitudes of people walking up and trafficking together. A noise - The noise of her enemies that shall break in upon her shall be like the roaring of the sea.
56 Because - Little more is said here than was before, only the words hint the taking of Babylon by a surprize when the king, and the inhabitants were not aware of it, which we had before also told us, ver.39,40. Requite - The wrongs done to his people.
57 Drunk - A plain allusion to the posture the king of Babylon, and the thousand of his lords were in, when their city was taken while they were drinking wine in the bowls that were brought from the temple at Jerusalem.
58 Weary - Though the people should labour to quench this fire, or to rebuild this city, yet it would be all lost labour.
59 In the fourth year - This circumstance lets us know that this prophecy was many years before Babylon was destroyed; for it was seven years before Jerusalem was taken; so as it must be above sixty years before it was fulfilled in the first degree.
61 Shalt read - Probably to the Jews, that were in Babylon.
62 Shalt say - Thou shalt testify that thou believest what thou hast read.
64 Weary - With that weight of judgment which shall be upon them. The words - The prophetical words of Jeremiah; for the matter of the next chapter is historical, and the book of Lamentations is not prophetical.

Chapter LII

A repetition of the reign of Zedekiah: of the siege, taking, and destruction of Jerusalem, with the causes thereof, and what farther happened there, ver. 1 - 30. Evil - merodach advances Jehoiakim, ver. 31 - 34.

2 Zedekiah - It is generally thought that this chapter was not penned by Jeremiah, who, it is not probable, would have so largely repeated what he had related before; and could not historically relate what happened after his time, as some things did which are mentioned towards the end of the chapter. Probably it was penned by some of those in Babylon, and put in here as a preface to the book of Lamentations.
24 Three - It is probable there were more keepers of the door, but the captain of the guard took only three of the chief.
30 All the persons were four thousand and six hundred - How amazingly were the Jews diminished, that this handful was all who were carried captive!
34 All the days of his life - Here ends the history of the kingdom of Judah. I shall only observe the severe judgment of God upon this people, whose kingdom was made up of the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin, and half the tribe of Manasseh. In the numbering of the persons belonging to these two tribes, Numb 1:27,35,37, (counting half of the number of the tribe of Manasseh) we find one hundred twenty - six thousand one hundred: Numb 26:22,34,41, we find of them one hundred forty - eight thousand four hundred and fifty. Here, ver.52:30, we find no more of them carried into captivity, than four thousand and six hundred. From whence we may judge what a multitude of them were slain by the sword, by the famine, and pestilence! It is a dreadful thing to fall into the hands of the living God, to mock his messengers, despise his words, and misuse his prophets, 'till there be no remedy, 2Chron 36:16.

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