Re 16:1
16:1 And {1} I heard a great voice out of the temple saying to
     the seven angels, Go your ways, and pour out the vials of
     the wrath of God upon the earth.

 (1) In the former chapter was set down the preparation to the
     work of God: here is delivered the execution of it. In this
     discourse of the execution, is a general commandment, in
     this verse, then a particular recital in order of the
     execution done by every of the seven angels, in the rest of
     the chapter. This special execution against Antichrist and
     his crew does in manner agree to that which was generally
     done on the whole world, chapters eight and nine and
     belongs (if my conjecture fail me not) to the same time.
     Yet in here they differ from one another, that this was
     particularly effected on the princes and ringleaders of the
     wickedness of the world, the other generally against the
     whole world being wicked. Therefore these judgments are
     more grievous than those.

Re 16:2
16:2 {2} And the first went, and poured out his vial upon the
     earth; and there fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the
     men which had the {3} mark of the beast, and [upon] them
     which worshipped his image.

 (2) The history of the first angel, whose plague on the earth
     is described almost in the same words with that sixth
     plague of the Egyptians in @Ex 9:9. But it does
     signify a spiritual vicar, and that torture or butchery of
     conscience seared with a hot iron, which accuses the
     ungodly within, and both by truth of the word (the light of
     which God has now so long shown forth) and by bitterness
     stirs up and forces out the sword of God's wrath.
 (3) See @Re 13:16

Re 16:3
16:3 {4} And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea;
     and it {a} became as the blood of a dead [man]: and every
     living soul died in the sea.

 (4) The history of the second angel, who troubles and molests
     the seas, that he may stir up the conscience of men
     sleeping in their wickedness; @Re 8:8.
     (a) It was turned into rotten and filthy blood, such as is
         in dead bodies.

Re 16:4
16:4 {5} And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers
     and fountains of waters; and they became blood.

 (5) The story of the third angel striking the rivers, in this
     verse, who proclaiming the justice of God, commends the
     same by a grave comparison of the sins of men, with the
     punishment of God: which is common to this place, and that
     which went before. Wherefore also this praising is
     attributed to the angel of the waters, a name common to the
     second and third angels, according as both of them are said
     to be sent against the waters, though the one of the sea,
     the other of the rivers, in @Re 16:5,6.

Re 16:7
16:7 {6} And I heard another out of the altar say, Even so, Lord
     God Almighty, true and righteous [are] thy judgments.

 (6) A confirmation of the praise before going out of the
     sanctuary of God, whether immediately by Christ, or by some
     one of his angels, for Christ also is called another angel;
     @Re 3:8,7:2,12:1

Re 16:8
16:8 {7} And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun;
     and power was given unto him to scorch men with fire.

 (7) The story of the fourth angel, who throws the plague on the
     heavens and on the sun, of which Luke notes the effects in
     @Lu 21:26. The one peculiar, that it shall scorch men
     with heat in this verse. The other proceeding accidentally
     from the former, that their fury shall so much more be
     enraged against God in @Re 16:9, when yet (O wonderful
     mercy and patience of God) all other creatures are first
     stricken often and grievously by the hand of God before
     mankind, by whom he is provoked: as the things before

Re 16:10
16:10 {8} And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat
      of the beast; and his kingdom was full of darkness; and
      they gnawed their tongues for pain,

 (8) The story of the first angel, who strikes the kingdom of
     the beast with two plagues abroad the darkness, with biles
     and distresses most grievous, throughout his whole kingdom
     that by this he might wound the conscience of the wicked,
     and punish the perverse obstinacy of the idolaters: of
     which arose perturbation, and thence a furious indignation
     and desperate madness, raging against God and hurtful to

Re 16:12
16:12 {9} And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great
      river {10} Euphrates; and {11} the water thereof was dried
      up, {12} that the way of the kings of the east might be

 (9) The story of the sixth angel, divided into his act, and the
     event of it. The act is, that the angel cast out of his
     mouth the plague of a most glowing heat, in which even the
     greatest floods, and which most were accustomed to swell
     and overflow (as Euphrates) were dried up, by the counsel
     of God in this verse. The event is, that the madness with
     which the wicked are enraged that they may scorn the
     judgments of God, and abuse them furiously to serve their
     own turn, and to the executing of their own wicked outrage.
 (10) The bound of the spiritual Babylon, and to the fortresses
      of the same @Re 9:14.
 (11) So the Church of the ungodly, and kingdom of the beast is
      said to be left naked, all the defences of it in which
      they put their trust, being taken away from it.
 (12) That is, that even they who dwell further off, may with
      more convenience make haste to the sacrifice, which the
      Lord has appointed.

Re 16:13
16:13 And I saw {13} three unclean spirits {14} like frogs
      [come] out of the mouth of the {15} dragon, and out of the
      mouth of the {16} beast, and out of the mouth of the {17}
      false prophet.

 (13) That is, every one of them focus their whole force, and
      conspired that by wonders, word and work they might bring
      into the same destruction all kings, princes and
      potentates of the world, cursedly bewitched by them by
      their spirits, and teachers of the vanity and impunity of
      the beast that committed fornication with the kings of the
      earth. This is a good description of our times.
 (14) Croaking with all importunity and continually day and
      night provoking and calling forth to arms, as the trumpets
      and furies of wars, as is declared in @Re 16:14.
 (15) That is, the devil; @Re 12:3
 (16) See @Re 13:1.
 (17) That is, of that other beast; @Re 13:11, for so he is
      called also in @Re 19:20,20:10.

Re 16:15
16:15 {18} Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed [is] he that
      watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked,
      and they see his shame.

 (18) A parenthesis for admonition, in which God warns his holy
      servants, who rest in the expectation of Christ, always to
      think of his coming, and to look to themselves, that they
      be not shamefully made naked and circumvented of these
      unclean spirits, and so they be miserable unprepared at
      the coming of the Lord; @Mt 24:29,25:13.

Re 16:16
16:16 {19} And he gathered them together into a place called in
      the Hebrew tongue {20} Armageddon.

 (19) Namely the angel, who according to the commandment of God,
      was to do sacrifice: nonetheless that those impure spirits
      do the same wickedly, as servants not to God, but to the
      beast that has seven heads.
 (20) That is, (to say nothing of other expositions) the
      mountain itself, or mountain places of Megiddon. Now it is
      certain by the Holy Scripture, that Megiddon is a city and
      territory in the tribe of Manasseh, bordering on Issachar
      and Asher, and was made famous by the lamentable overthrow
      of king Josias; @2Ch 35:22, Zec 12:11. In this
      mountain country God says by figure or type that the kings
      of the people who serve the beast shall meet together;
      because the Gentiles did always cast that lamentable
      overthrow in the teeth of the Church of the Jews, to their
      great reproach and therefore were persuaded that that
      place should be most fortunate to them (as they speak) and
      unfortunate to the godly. But God here pronounces, that
      that reproach of the Church and confidence of the ungodly,
      shall by himself be taken away, in the same place where
      the nations persuaded themselves, they should mightily
      exult and triumph against God and his Church.

Re 16:17
16:17 {21} And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the
      {22} air; and there came a great voice out of the temple
      of heaven, from {23} the throne, saying, {24} It is done.

 (21) The story of the seventh angel to the end of the chapter,
      in which first is shown by sign and speech, the argument
      of this plague, in this verse: and then is declare the
      execution of it in the verses following.
 (22) From whence he might move the heaven above, and the earth
 (23) That is, from him that sits on the throne, by metonymy.
 (24) That is, Babylon is undone, as is shown in @Re 16:19
      and in the chapters following. For the first onset (as I
      might say) of this denunciation, is described in this
      chapter: and the last containing a perfect victory, is
      described in those that follow.

Re 16:18
16:18 {25} And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings;
      and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since
      men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, [and] so

 (25) Now is declared the execution (as is said) in @Re 16:17
      and the things that shall last come to pass in heaven and
      in earth before the overthrow of the beast of Babylon: both
      generally in @Re 16:18 and particularly in the cursed
      city, and such as have any familiarity with it, in the last

Re 16:19
16:19 {26} And the great city was divided into three parts, and
      the cities of the nations {27} fell: and great {28}
      Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her
      the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath.

 (26) The seat or standing place of Antichrist.
 (27) Of all who cleave to Antichrist and fight against Christ.
 (28) That harlot, of whom in the next chapter following. Now
      this phrase "to come into remembrance" is from the Hebrew
      language, borrowed from men, and attributed to God.

Re 16:20
16:20 And every island fled away, and the mountains {29} were
      not {b} found.

 (29) That is, were seen no more, or were no more extant.  A
      borrowed Hebraism.
      (b) Literally "appeared not"; @Ge 5:24

Re 16:21
16:21 {30} And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven,
      [every stone] about the weight of a {c} talent: and men
      blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the
      plague thereof was exceeding great.

 (30) The manner of the particular execution, most evidently
      testifying the wrath of God by the original and greatness
      of it: the event of which is the same with that which is
      in @Re 9:12 and that which has been mentioned in this
      chapter, from the execution of the fourth angel till now,
      that is to say, an incorrigible pertinency of the world in
      their rebellion, and a heart that cannot repent;
      @Re 16:9,10.
      (c) About the weight of a talent, and a talent was sixty
          pounds, that is, six hundred groats, by which is
          signified a marvellous and strange weight.

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