62 cf. Rom. i. 20.

1 krou=ma. properly "beat," "stroke," is used of the blow of the plectrum on the string, and hence of the not produced.

2 cf. Plato, Rep. iii. 18, ad init., and his reference to the ialqako\j ai/xuhth/j of Homer, II. xvii. 586. The same subject is treated of the Laws ii.§ 3 and 5 and vii.

3 cf. Ar., Nub. 16, o'neioopolei' i@ppouj and 27, o'neiropolei= kai\ kaqeudwn ippikh/n. So Claudian, De vi. Cons. Hon. 1, sq.:

Omnia quae sensu volnuntur vota diurno,

Pectore sopito reddit amica quies.

Venator defessa toro cum membra reponit,

Mens tamen ad sylvas et sua lustra redit.

Fudicibus lites, aurigae somnia currus,

Vanaque nocturnis meta cavetur equis.

4 Isa. xl. 22, LXX.

5 Gen. i. 9, 10.

6 Eccl. i. 6, 7.

7 Jer. v. 22.

8 i.e. the Mediterranean.

9 Geminum mare. . . quod Rubrum dixere nostri. . . in duos dividitur sinus. Is qui ab oriente Persicus est. . . altero siau Arabico nominato. Plin. vi. 28.

10 This illustration is taken from the work on which Basil has been so largely dependent, the Meterology of Aristotle (i. 14, 548). Pliny (vi. 33) writes "Daneos Portus, ex quo navigabilem alveum perducere in Nilum, qua parte ad Delta dictum decurrit lxii. mill. D. Pass. intervallo, quod inter flumen et Rubrum mare inter est, primus omnium Sesostris Aegypti rex cogitavit; max Darius Persarum; deinde Ptolemaeus sequens." Herodotus (ii. 158) attributes the canal to Necho. Strabo (xvii. 804) says Darius, in supposing Egypt to lie lower than the sea, was yendei= peisqei/j. The early canal, choked by sand, was reopened by Trajan, and choked again. Amron, Omar's general, again cleared it, but it was blocked a.d. 767. The present Suez Canal, opened in 1869, follows a new course.

11 i.e.Cadiz, a corruption of Gaderia, which, like Geder and Gadara, is connected with the Phoenician Gadir, an enclosure.

12 Pliny (vi. 15) shared a common error that the Caspian flowed into a Northern Sea. The eastern part was known as the Hyrcanian, the western as the Caspian. Strabo xi. 507, et sq.

13 The obelus (_) is used by Jerome to mark superfluous matter in the lxx. cf. Jer. p. 494, in Canon Fremantle's Translation. The addition in question appears neither in the Vulgate, nor in Aquila, or Symmachus, or Theodotion. Ambrose, however, in Hexaem. iii. 5 approves of it.

14 Gen. i. 10.

15 Gen. i. 10.

1 Gen. i. 11.

2 Empedocles, according to Plutarch (peri\ tw=n a're/sk, etc. v. 342) prw=ta tw=n zw/wn ta= de/ndra e'k gh=j a'nadu=nai/ fhsi, pri\n to\n h!lion periaplwqh=nai kai\ pri\n h 9me/ran kai\ nu\kta diakriqh=nai.

3 Triticum repens.

4 On the history of this doctrine, of which Linnaeus was the latest great exponent, and its contradiction in Darwin, see Haeckl's Schöpfungsgeschichte, vol. i. ch 2.

5 "To me the meanest flower that blows can give Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears." Wordsworth, Ode on Immortality.

6 Literally, knee - Latin geniculum. f. Xen., Anab. iv. 5, 26, and Theoph. viii. 2, 4. "Knee-jointed" is a recognised English term for certain grasses.

7 "Taurinus recens inter venena est." Plin. xi. 90 Taurinus recens inter venena est. 2d. xxviii. 41. cf. Dioscorid. in Alexiph. 25.

8 cf. Galen. De Simp. Pac. iii.

9 o 9 mandrago/raj touj a'nqrw/pouj koimi/zei. Xen., Symp. ii. 24.

10 cf. Arataeus, De Morb. Aent. ii. 11.

11 The Black Hellebore, or Christmas Rose, is a recgnised alterative. Whether this is the plant of Anticyra is doubtful.

12 puro/j=wheat. The root, which has nothing to do with pu=r, is found by Curtius in the Slavonic pyro=rye, the Bohemian pyr=quitch grass, the Lettish purji =wheat, and the Lithuanian pyragas=wheaten bread. (L. & S. in loc).

13 cf. Virg., Georg. i. 93: "Aut Borcae penetrabile frigus adurat." Ov. M. xiv. 763, Frigus adurat poma, and in Greek Arist., Meteor. iv. 5.

14 Matt. iv. 26-28.

15 cf. Horrescunt segetes. Virgl, Georg. iii. 39.

16 Gen. i. 11.

17 a'mfi/komoi kai\ dasei=j. cf. Milton, "With frizzled hair implicit." P.L. vii.

18 cf. Milton, P.L., B. iv., "Flowers of all hue and without thorn the rose," and August. De Genesi contra Manichaeosi. 13.

19 cf. S. John xv. 1-6.

20 Isa. v. 1.

21 Matt. xxi. 33.

22 Ps. xxxiv. 7.

23 cf. 1 Cor. xii. 28.

24 Ps. lii. 8.

25 The phenomenon has been observed in later days, though Basil may be at fault in his account of the cause. When pines have been cleared away in North American forests young oaklings have sprung up. The acorn lay long hid, unable to contend against the pine, but, when once the ground was clear, it sprouted. This upgrowth of a new kind of tree had been accounted for partly by the burial of germs by jays, rooks, and some quadrupeds; partly by the theory of De Candolle and Liebig that roots expel certain substances which, though unfavourable to the vitality of the plant excreting them, are capable of supporting others. So, on the pine pressure being removed, the hidden seeds sprout in a kind of vegetable manure. cf. Sir Charles Lvell's Travels in the United States and Rough's Elements of Forestry, p. 19.

26 Ambrose, Hexaem. iii. 13 writes: Amygdalis quoque hoc genere medicari feruntur agricolae, ut ex amaria dulces fiant fructus, ut et terebrent ejus radicem arboris, et in medium inserant surculum ejus arboris quam Graeci peu/xhn , nos piceam dicimus: quo facto succi amaritudo deponitur.

27 On the argument from design, cf. Aristotle, De Part. Antim. iii. 1, as quoted and translated by Cudworth, III. xxxviii. 3: "A carpenter would give a better account than so, for he would not think it suffcient to say that the fabric came to be of such a form becasue the instruments happened to fall so and so, but he will tell you that it is because himself made such strokes, and that he directed the instruments and determined their motion after such a manner, to this end that he might make the whole a fabric fit and useful for such purposes." On the strength and weakness of the argument from design, in view of modern speculation, suggestive matter is contained in Dr. Eagar's Buther's Analogy and Modern Thought, p. 49 et sq.

28 cf. Jer. xvii. 6. LXX.

29 "Ac mihi quidem videtur, cum duae sententiae fuissent verterum philosophorum, una eorume qui censerent omnia ita fato fieri, ut id fatum vim necessitatis afferret, in qua sententia Democritus, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Aristoteles fuit; altera eorum, quibus viderentur sine ullo fato esse animorum motus voluntarii: Chrysippus tanquam arbiter honorarius, medium ferire voluisse. . . quanquam assensio non possit fieri nisi commota visa, tamen cum id visum proximam causam habeat, non principalem hanc habet rationem, ut Chrysippus vult, quam dudum diximus, non, ut illa quidem fieri possit, nulla vi extrinsecus excitata, necesse est enim assensionem viso commoveri, sed revertitur ad cylindrum, et ad turbinem suum, quae moveri incipere, nisi pulsa non possunt: id autem cum accidit suapte natura, quod superest et cylindrum volvi, et versari turbinem putat." (Circ., De fato. xviii.)

30 cf. Ps. xcii. 13.

1 In the Theatrum spectators might be covered. cf. Mart. xiv. 29:

"In Pompeiano tectus spectabo theatro;

Nam ventus populo vela nagare solet."

cf. Dion Cassius lix. 7. These passages may, however, indicate exceptional cases.

2 cf. Greg., In Ez.: Propter bonos auditores malis doctoribus sermo datur: et propter malos auditores bonis doctoribus sermo subtrahitur.

3 "By night an atheist half believes in God." Young, N.T. v. 177. cf. also Cic., De nat. Deor. ii. 38: Quis enim hunc hominem dixerit, qui tam certos coeli motus, tam ratos astrorum ordines, tamque omnia ister se connexa et apta viderit, neget in his ullam inesse rationem, eaque casu fieri dicat, quae quanto consilio gerantur, nullo consilio assequi possumus

4 cf. Cic., De Nat. Deor. ii. 62. Est enim mundus quasi communis deorum atque hominum domus, aut urbs utroumque. Soli etiam ratione utentes, jure ac lege vivunt. Bp. Lightfoot quotes in illustration of Phil. iii. 20, Philo, De Conf. I. 416, M. patri/da me\n to\n ou'ra/nion xw=ron e'n w\ politeu/ontai ce/non de\ to\n peri/geion e'n w\ parw/khsan noui/zousai. So Clem. Alex., Strom. iv. 26, le/gousi ga\r oi/ Stwi$koi\ to\n me\n ou'rano\n kuri/wj po/lin tu\ de\ e'pi\ gh=j e'ntau=qa ou'k e$ti po/leij, le/gesqai ga\r, ou'k ei\nai de/, and Plato, Rep. ix. 592, B. e'n ou'ranw= i!swj para/deigma (th=j po/lewj) a'na/keitai tw= boulome/w o 9pa=n kai\ o 9rw=nti e 9auto\n katoiki/zein.

5 cf. Acts iii. 15.

6 cf. Mal. iv. 2.

7 Gen. i. 14. LXX.

8 Fialon quotes Bossuet (5th elev. 3d week): "Ainsi il a fait la lumière avant que de faire les grands luminaires où il a voulu la ramasser: et il a fait la distinction des jours avant que d'avoir créé les astres dont il s'est servi pour les régler par faitement: et le soir et le matin ont été distingués, avant que leur distinction et la division parfaite du jour et de la unit fût bien marquée; et les arbres, et les arbustes, et les herbes ont germé sur la terre par ordre de Dieu, avant qu'il eût fait le saleil, qui devait être le père de toutes ces plontes; et il a détaché exprès les effects d'avec leurs causes naturelles, pour montrer que naturellement tout ne tient qu'à lui seul, et ne dépend que de sa seule volonté."

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