260 Presumably Irenaeus of Tyre.

261 i.e., in 361. For Theodoret's account of the circumstances vide pp. 92, 93.

262 Cyril wrote his IIIrd letter to Nestorius probably on Nov. 3, 430. "To the end of the letter were appended twelve `articles 0' or `chapters, 0' couched in the form of anathematisms against the various points of the Nestorian theory." "These propositions were not well calculated to reclaim Nestorius; nor were they indeed so worded throughout as to approve themselves to all who essentially agreed with Cyril as to the personal Deity of Christ. On the contrary the abruptness of their tone, and a certain one-sidedness ...made some of them open, prima facie, to serious criticism from persons who, without being Nestorians, felt that in the attack on Nestorianism the truth of Christ's real and permanent manhood might be in danger of losing its due prominence." Canon Bright, Dict. Christ. Biog. i. 766.

263 Dioscorus succeeded Cyril at Midsummer, 444.

264 i.e. John of Antioch. He reached Ephesus June 27, 431.

265 Eutherius of Tyana (Kiliss Hissar in Karamania) was a strong Nestorian, and signed the appeal of Nestorius after his deposition in 431. On July 17th John and his adherents were deposed. Firmus of the Cappadocian C`sarea (still "Kasaria") himself a graceful letter writer, was an anti-Nestorian. Theodotus of Ancyra also sided with Cyril.

266 i.e. Cyril and Memnon. "No sooner had John reached Ephesus, than before the had washed and dressed after his journey, in the inn itself, late at night, in secret session, by the connivance of the Count Candidianus, a sentence was passed on Cyril and Memnon - on Cyril on the accusation of Theodoret." Cf. Garnerius Hist. Theod., and Cyril. Ep. ad Caelest. Labbe iii. 663.

267 John of Antioch sent Paul of Emesa to confer with Cyril on terms of peace in 432.

268 Paul and Barnabas went up to Jerusalem, not to Peter, but "unto the Apostles and elders." Acts xv. 2. Peter took a leading part in the discussion, but the "sentence" was pronounced not by Peter, but by James, and the decree was that of "the Apostles and elders with the whole Church." The slight "wresting" of the scriptures of which Theodoret is guilty is due rather to a desire to compliment an important personage than in anticipation of later controversies.

269 Rome was the only apostolic see in the West.

270 Rom. i. 8.

271 The traditional places of sepulture are, of half of each of the holy bodies, the shrine of SS. Peter and Paul in the crypt of St. Peter's; of the remaining moiety of St. Peter the Lateran; of St. Paul, St. Paolo fuori le Mura.

272 Kolofwn. cf. note on page 262.

273 St. Paul is treated as in a sense bishop of Rome. The idea may have some bearing on the hypothesis sometimes adopted, to avoid the difficulties in the early Roman succession, that there was a Gentile line derived from St. Paul, who ordained Linus, and after him Cletus; and that for the Jewish brethren St. Peter ordained Clement.

274 His dogmatic epistles and his sermons. He is not known to have written any large treatise.

275 Dioscorus presided, and next him sat Julius of Puteoli, who in company with the presbyter Renatus, and the deacon Hilarius (successor to Leo in the papacy) had carried to Flavian the famous "tome" of Leo in June 449. Leo (Epp. XXXII. and XXXIV.) describes his legates as sent "delatere meo." According to one version of the story Renatus died at Delos on the way out. Labbe IV: 1079.

276 Patriarch at Antioch 420-429.

277 No word exactly renders the title of these ministers, discharging functions of an episcopal kind, though without high responsibility. They are first mentioned in the Councils of Ancyra and of Neo-Caesarea and fifteen of them subscribed the decrees of Nicaea.

278 Exarch, in .its most ordinary eccleslastical sense nearly equivalent to patriarch, came also to be used of officers charged with the visitation of monasteries.

279 If born in 386 (Garnerius), Theodoret would now be 63. Tillemont says 393.

280 The tone of this letter, it need hardly be said, is quite inconsistent with the later idea of an "appeal to Rome." It is "an appeal," but the appeal of a wronged man for the sup port, succour, and advice, of a brother bishop of the highest position and character. It does not on the face of it suggest that Leo has any authority to review or alter the sentence of the council. Tillemont (Mém. Ecc. xv. 294) observes that though addressed to Leo in person the appeal is really made to the bishops of the West in council. Leo remonstrated, but Theodosius and his court maintained that the decrees of the Latrocinium must stand.

281 In Migne's edition here follows the reply of Leo to Theodoret, which appears as Letter CXX. in the works of Leo.

282 Written after the deposition at Ephesus, and when Theodoret is either on the point of departing, or has departed, from Cyrus to the Apamean monastery. The simultaneous exercise of the clerical and medical professions points perhaps to the continuance of the class of "Silverless martyrs," i.e. physicians who took no fee but healed on condition that their patients should turn to Christ. The legendary Saints of the un-feed faculty are Cosmo and Damian, the brothers whose church occupies the site of the Temple of Remus, or of the Penates, in the Roman Forum.

283 This letter will be of the same date as CXIII. Theodoret was aware that Leo was to be represented at the Latrocinium by Renatus as well as by Julius of Puteoli and the archdeacon Hilarius, but had not heard that he had never reached Ephesus. We are told on the authority of Felix, the author of the "Breviarium Hoeresis Eutychianoe" that Renatus died at Delos on the way out, This death is however discredited by Quesnel and some other authorities.

284 Numbers xxv. 7.

285 Hilarius did leave Ephesus before the second session of the council (Cf. Leo Ep. XLVI) and before the deposition of Theodoret. The "massacre" may refer to the brutal treatment of Flavian by the adherents and bullies of Dioscorus.

286 i.e. Leo.

287 This is more or less true up to the time of Leo the great, but Leo the great was the first pope who was an eminent theologian. Liberius is a doubtful case. Cf. page 76.

288 The Monothelite Controversy dates from two centuries after Theodoret, when Heraclius was trying to bring about religious union in his empire. Pope Honorius asserted two energies, but one will. Monothelitism was definitely condemned at Constantinople in 681, and Honorius anathematized.

289 There were at this time two well known personages of the name of Florentius to whom this letter may possibly have been addressed. Florentius the patrician, recipient of Letter LXXXIX., and Florentius bishop of Sardis. Against the former hypothesis are the terms of the letter; against the latter the character and sympathies of the metropolitan of Lydia, it as Garuerius thinks, he was an Eutychian. Canon Venables (Dict. Christ Bios. II. 540) supposes a Florentius bishop of a nameless western see. Garnerius and others think the letter was probably really addressed to the clergy or bishops assembled in synod at Rome.

290 Romans ix. 25.

291 Vide page 72.

292 Cf. note on page 293. Garnerius however is doubtful whether the archdeacon is Hilarius or another. The evidence seems in favour of the identity.

293 This letter is of the same date as the rest of the present series. Theodoret has heard of his deposition and is expecting the sentence of banishment.

294 Cf. Psalm xix. 4.

295 Gen. xviii. 20. Gen. xviii. 21.

296 i.e. Nicerte.

297 Garnerius reads Lupicinus and identifies him with the recipient of Letter XC. Letter CXX is of the same date as the preceding.

298 This letter may be dated shortly after Letter CXIX. Garnerius points out that it contains it short summary of the orthodox tradition, but makes no mention of the council of Ephesus in 431.

299 The two following letters are written from the monaster at Nicerte where Theodoret found a retreat after his banishment from Cyrus. Garnerius would place the former late in 449, and the latter early in 450.

300 Uranius, bishop of Emesa in Ph`nicia, was present at the two trials of Ibas, at Tyre in February and at Berytus in September 448. At the Latrocinium he was accused of immorality and of episcopal usurpation. It was during his episcopate that the head of the Baptist was supposed to be found at Emesa. Cf. notes on pp. 96 and 242.

301 Cf. note on p. 72. Here oikonomia is used for discreet silence like the German "Zurückhaltung," and the French "ménagement." Cf. the Socratic erwneia and the Latin dissimulatio.

302 II. Tim. iv. 2.

303 Acts xviii. 9.

304 Isaiah lviii. 1.

305 Exodus xix. 21.

306 Ezekiel iii. 17. Ezekiel iii. 19. inexact quotation.

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